Campus Directory

University of South Florida · College of Behavioral & Community Sciences · Rehabilitation & Mental Health Counseling

Previous COMPS


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2010

#1 – Foundations

Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Include in this dialogue an example (and label them as such) of the counselor using each of the seven (7) following listening skills:

  1. a paraphrase
  2. an open-ended question
  3. a close-ended question
  4. summary response
  5. an empathy statement
  6. a confrontation

#2 – Counseling Theories

Compare and contrast (1) Freudian; (2) Person-Centered; and (3) Cognitive Behavioral approaches in terms of:

  1. Each model’s assumptions about the source(s) of our client’s problems. How do people get into trouble?
  2. Each model’s basic theoretical perspective to counseling.
  3. Each model’s specific therapeutic strategies and techniques.

#3 – Counseling in Community Settings

What is community counseling? Describe the evolution of community counseling. Describe the contributions the Mental Health Act of 1963 had on community mental health services in the United States. What were the conditions of mental health services prior to the Act of 1963?

#4 – Medical Aspects

Rheumatic diseases are a leading cause of functional limitation, pain, and disability for both adults and elders. With regard to these diseases, do the following:

  1. List two (2) examples of rheumatic diseases;
  2. Describe two (2) functional limitations imposed by each disease;
  3. Briefly describe psychosocial implications of these diseases.

#5 – Substance Abuse

Seventy year old John was having difficulty concentrating, nodded off frequently, and when he began experiencing chest pains he consulted his doctor at the urging of his adult daughters. John had been placed on an anti-depressant medication (Prozac) by this physician 5 months previous to address his ongoing sadness and despondency since the death of his wife Betty of 52 years. It was 8 months ago that she passed away. He was also at the same time prescribed a small dose of a benzodiazepine (Xanax) to take as needed to address some intermittent anxiety he was experiencing. His physician could find nothing physically wrong so recommended John see a mental health counselor to address what the physician deemed as protracted grief. Although somewhat resistant at first, again at the urging of his adult daughters, John sought your services.

Your evaluation and psychosocial interview revealed John had been drinking heavily since the death of his wife of 52 years. It also revealed a history of substance use but it did not appear from his self-report that he experienced any major problems as a result. He denied drinking to excess. John is dairy farmer in Southern Louisiana and the long hours on the farm left little time to socialize during the week. He had few close friends outside of his family. He was a Vietnam Vet and occasionally participated in VFW activities. Otherwise socialization was primarily with family and at his church, those this had declined since the loss of his wife. He stated he and his wife did enjoy a couple of “highballs” (bourbon and water) daily as a relaxer at the end of a hard day’s work. On weekends, at dinner or gatherings with family or friends, he enjoyed a few drinks on those occasions. A few, when questioned, were usually 3-6 (bourbon and water) during an evening outing. He maintained he never had a problem nor was he ever intoxicated. Since Betty’s death, the occasional “highball” after work had turned into 3 or more and often significantly more on weekends. His daughters noticed he was having trouble remembering; experiencing difficulty in getting up in the morning, often slurred his words in the evening. This was very disconcerting to the daughters who live nearby.

  1. The Johnson model of alcoholism identifies four (4) phases that an individual will go through in the development of alcoholism. What stage do you see John in? Support your conclusion by identifying specific behaviors and possible defense mechanisms you see operative.
  2. What treatment level/modalities would you recommend for John? What specific treatment interventions and modalities would you use?

#6 – Human Sexuality

Discuss the importance of providing clear, accurate information about healthy sexuality to teens at home and in our schools. What are the personal and societal risks of ignoring sexual issues? Describe in detail, the components, benefits and goals of comprehensive sexuality education. Lastly, describe the “inoculation” theory of sex education versus viewing it as an ongoing developmental process.

#7 – Human Growth & Development

Using Erickson’s Model of Psychosocial Development and Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development, describe/explain how each would account for emotional attachment in infants and young children. Assuming emotional attachment is compromised during childhood, how might adult relationships be impacted?

#8 – Research

In recent years, the ethical aspects of research in mental health/behavioral health/rehabilitation have been of increasing concern to scientists and practitioners alike. Describe and illustrate the ethical issues and researcher responsibilities involved in the following: (a) voluntary participation in a study; (b) no harm to participants; (c) anonymity and confidentiality; and (d) analysis and reporting of data.

#9 – Social & Cultural Foundations

Contemporary theories of counseling and therapeutic practices are grounded in Western assumptions which may be inconsistent with the world-view of many ethnic minority clients. Discuss these assumptions and the way(s) in which adhering to them may negatively impact ethnic clients. Identify ways in which counselors can make the therapeutic process more culturally specific. Consider implications of cultural and individual diversity including race, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and aging issues.

#10 – Psychopathology

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered in the practice of mental health/addictions/rehabilitation counseling and in physical health care.

  1. List the disorders in this category; and
  2. Briefly describe how depression especially complicates chronic illnesses and disabilities.
  3. Identify standard psychotherapies used in treating mood disorders.

#11 – Legal & Ethical

  1. Competence is considered to have three (3) components. Identify and define those three components, and discuss whether competence is best considered as a static or dynamic phenomenon, and why.
  2. Identify at least two (2) key ethical principles that are embodied in the ethics codes of various counseling organizations AND identify specific behaviors or obligations that are tied to these more general principles.

#12 – Concepts & Applications

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA-1990) was a major piece of legislation that was passed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities. Explain its impact on persons with disabilities and specifically discuss the highlights of Titles I through V of this Act.

#13 – Career & Lifestyle Assessment

What is the purpose of a career development theory? Identify one (1) theory, its author(s) and describe its characteristics. What are some advantages and disadvantages of the theory?

#14 – Group Theories

There are a number of different stage models that describe the development of a counseling or psychotherapy group. Choose one (1) of the major stage models and then:

  1. list all of the stages the group goes through;
  2. describe what the experience of that stage is like for the group members (i.e., what they are likely feeling and struggling with); and
  3. describe the task of the leader at each of the stages.

#15 – Evaluation & Assessment

The interview is the major tool that counselors have in assessing clients. Number your answers to correspond with each of the following questions:

  1. Why is it important for the counselor to build a good working relationship with the client in an intake or assessment interview, and how does the counselor do this?
  2. What areas should the counselor cover or assess in a mental status examination?
  3. What areas should the counselor assess or cover in taking a psychobiosocial history?

Spring 2010

#1 – Foundations

From the person-centered school of psychotherapy:

  1. Describe the characteristics of the fully functioning person.
  2. Define the goals of treatment.
  3. Identify and describe the three core elements of the effective counselor.
  4. Your client, Diane, is crying as she tells you about her boyfriend breaking up with her last Sunday.  She says “I just can’t believe it.  He picked my birthday to dump me!  We were together almost five years.  What am I going to do?”  Provide an active listening response.

#2 – Social & Cultural Foundations

You are a counselor at an urban rehabilitation center.  A 26-year-old, married, Hispanic male, father of three (ages 1, 4 and 7) has self-referred for services.  He is 12 months post injury having L3-L4 level paralysis (i.e. he is not able to use and does not have sensation in his legs, but can use his arms and hands) the result of a shooting in a gang related incident.  At the time of injury he was a construction worker, and had just left the job site when the shooting occurred.  He was not part of a gang, but does admit he was in the neighborhood attempting to buy some marijuana and further admits to being an occasional user.  He reports his primary reason for seeking services is to return to work as his family is poor and it is his responsibility to provide for the family.  He is a legal alien and is eligible for your services.

As his counselor address primary issues and/or concerns to which you may need to explore, related to his disability?

In the context of his disability what impact and relatedness might you anticipate for each of the following?

  1. Culture
  2. Gender
  3. Developmental issues/ onset of disability

Identify other concerns you might have

#3 – Counseling in Community Settings

Describe the contributions the Mental Health Act of 1963 had on community mental health services in the United States.  What were the conditions of mental health services prior to the Act of 1963?

#4 – Medical Aspects

Cardiovascular impairments are the number 1 cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women in the United States.  With regard to these impairments, do the following:

  1. Identify two specific diseases or disabilities that are represented under this broad category;
  2. Identify the functional limitations imposed by each; and
  3. Identify psychosocial implications for individuals and their families who experience these impairments.

#5 – Substance Abuse

A new client comes to see you, and early in the first session tells you that he “drinks a lot” and “at times struggles with nervousness, tension and stress.”

What would you do to determine whether he “is a person with an anxiety disorder who self-medicates with alcohol” OR “is an alcoholic who struggles with anxiety?”

#6 – Human Sexuality

Respond to these three (3) questions about sex and gender:

  1. Highlight the main differences between the concepts of sex and gender.
  2. Identify the four (4) major processes through which children are socialized to their gender roles.
  3. Define gender role stereotyping.  Describe the common consequences of gender role stereotyping.

#7 – Human Growth & Development

Identify and describe Erikson’s eight (8) stages of human growth and development.  What are the key psychosocial tasks of each stage of development?  How can a counselor apply the psychosocial model of development in his or her work with a client?

#8 – Research

The “scientist-practitioner” model of professional preparation in counseling assumes that students will be trained in both the research base and methods as well as practice skills that are demanded by employment in this field.  Identify three (3) ways that research knowledge and skills may be used, or already are being used by you, in practica, internship, or job settings.

#9 – Counseling Theories

Consider the following three (3) theorists:  (1) Rogers; (2) Freud; and (3) Beck.

Answer the three (3) following questions:

  1. How are these three (3) theorists similar, from an a priori, fundamental perspective?
  2. How are these three (3) theorists different, in terms of how an individual develops a neurosis and gets in trouble?
  3. How are these theorists different, in terms of how a counselor would help a client struggling with a neurosis and in trouble?

#10 – Psychopathology

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered in the real world practice of mental health counseling.

  1. List the disorders in this category; and
  1. Identify standard psychotherapies used to treat anxiety disorders.

#11 – Legal & Ethical

Identify and define the three (3) components of informed consent; identify in which general ethical principle this specific legal and ethical requirement is anchored; and discuss how the appropriate treatment of the informed consent process can be used to increase the likelihood of beneficial treatment outcomes.

#12 – Concepts & Applications

One of the most important pieces of legislation to assist people with disabilities passed in recent history is the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA-1990).  Please outline the five (5) Titles of this Act by number, including what is addressed under each title (definitions, general rules, coverage, examples, key points, etc.).

#13 – Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Identify and discuss the major historical events that influenced career counseling during the following four (4) stages of its development:

  1. 1850-1920
  2. 1930-1950
  3. 1950-1980
  4. 1980-Present

In your opinion, which stage had the most significant influence on career counseling?  Why?

#14 – Group

  1. Answer the following questions about working with clients in groups in this order (label your answers as below):
  1. What is a psychoeducational group?  What is the basic purpose of these groups?  Give two (2) examples of psychoeducational groups.
  2. What is the difference between group counseling and group psychotherapy?
  3. Identify three (3) issues or areas that informed consent should cover before people enter group counseling or psychotherapy.
  1. There are a number of different stage models addressing how groups develop and subsequently work.  Present one (1) of these stage models and then with one or more sentences describe what is happening in each stage.

#15 – Evaluation & Assessment

What is the basic definition of validity?  Identify and describe the different types of validity.  What is the basic definition of reliability?  Identify and describe the different types of reliability.  Why are validity and reliability important in testing?

Fall 2009

#1 – Foundations

In regard to the counseling relationship:

a)   Identify the qualities of an effective therapeutic alliance between counselor and client.

b)   Explain why this alliance plays such a critical role in successful counseling.

Your client, Elaine, is a forty-year old real estate agent.  She got laid off over six-months ago and has been unable to find full-time employment.  She is becoming increasingly concerned about her situation.  She is seriously considering going back to school to obtain a graduate degree in counseling or simply relocating.  Early in the session she says tearfully, “I just don’t know what to do.  I’m having a terrible time sleeping, I’m broke, and I have no idea what I should do.  I just can’t believe I’m in such a screwed up situation.”

Respond with each the following:

a)      A paraphrase:

b)      An open-ended question:

c)      Active listening (reflection of feelings):

#2 – Social & Cultural Foundations

Discuss how aspects of culture, gender and age of onset of disability may impact a person’s perceptions of self worth?

Also, discuss how these concerns interrelate.

#3 – Counseling in Community Settings

Ever since the ratification of the Mental Health Act of 1963, Community Mental Health Centers have been the cornerstone of the public mental health system.  Please discuss in detail each of the following as they relate to Community Mental Health Centers. 

1)      Guiding principles for the practice of community mental health.

2)      Characteristics of the population(s) commonly served within community mental health systems.

3)      Services provided (original mandated services as well as services commonly offered today).

4)      Funding issues and funding sources used to support community mental health services.

#4 – Medical Aspects

Choose two (2) chronic illnesses or disabilities representative of the categories listed below and do the following: 

·         neurological or neuromuscular disorders that effect the body

·         rheumatological disorders

·         pain disorders

·         cancer

·         brain disorders

a)      describe signs and symptoms associated with each;

b)      describe functional limitations imposed by the disability; and

c)   describe the psychosocial limitations or challenges that one must grapple with in the adaptation/adjustment process.

#5 – Substance Abuse

Case:  Janet, an 18-year-old high school senior gets picked up by the police for a DUI and possession of marijuana.  Additionally, there was an open container of alcohol in the car.  She had driven her friend’s home from a “keg” party at her house, which was unsupervised.  This was fairly common practice in this suburban community and not of major concern due to the parent’s similar involvement as teens.  The keg had been provided by Janet’s parents who were out of town for the weekend. Janet, normally a responsible individual and good student, has in the last several months been missing school and her grades have severely dropped since being accepted into college.  She has abandoned her old friendships in favor of a new group of peers that are more fun and like to hang out.  Her parents drink very heavily on a daily basis but identify themselves as social drinkers.  Her father posted bond and her parents chalk the whole incident up to “senioritis.”  Janet has been referred to you, a mental health counselor, to determine the severity of the alcohol and drug problem and what, if any, interventions are indicated. 

a)      Identify probable risk and/or confounding factors (individual, family, peer, and community).

b)      What specific developmental stage factors do you need to be aware of due to Janet’s age?

c)      Discuss how you would address this adolescent and determine the type and appropriate level of care you would recommend, specific issues you anticipate needing to be addressed, treatment approach and interventions to accomplish this task.

d)     What family issues would you need to address?

#6 – Human Sexuality

a)      Identify the five phases of the human sexual response cycle.

b)      Describe the sexual dysfunctions most closely associated with each phase.

c)      Identify the counseling concerns and strategies in working with erectile dysfunction OR anorgasmia.

 

#7 – Human Growth & Development

In regard to the topic of emotional attachment: 

a)      Discuss the role of "secure emotional attachment" during the first year of life.

b)      How might the quality of emotional attachment affect loving relationships in adulthood?

c)      How might the quality of emotional attachment affect the client-counselor relationship?

#8 – Research

What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in: 

a)   purpose;

b)   method or design; and

c)   utilization of results.

#9 – Counseling Theories & Addiction

During his first session with his counselor, Bob, a 28 year-old client, makes the following statement:

“Marcia and I have been dating for about three months now and up until two nights ago she has been nothing but wonderful in every way.  Two nights ago, however, she said she would call me after her night class – but never called!  She promised me when we first met that if she ever said she would call me, she would call me, and up to now, she always has.  However, for the past two days I’ve been thinking about it, and I’ve decided to tell her that I want to end our relationship.  I’m convinced that this is a good idea and I feel good about the decision, but ever since I made the decision I have been jittery, fidgety and acting nervous all the time.”

1a)   Write out a Rogerian response to Bob’s above statement.

1b)  In a short paragraph, explain why your Rogerian response to Bob is a Rogerian response.

2a)   Write out an Ellisonian response to Bob’s above statement.

2b)  In a short paragraph, explain why your Ellisonian response to Bob is an Ellisonian response.

3a)   Write out a Perls response to Bob’s above statement.

3b)  In a short paragraph, explain why your Perls response to Bob is a Perls response.

#10 – Psychopathology

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered in the “real” world practice of mental health/rehabilitation/addictions counseling.

a)   List the disorders in this category; and

b)   Identify standard psychotherapies used in treating the disorders.

#11 – Legal & Ethical

Identify and define the three (3) components of informed consent and the role and value of informed consent in therapeutic interactions with clients.

#12 – Concepts and Applications

Discuss the importance of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.  Address its impact on persons with disabilities.  Specifically discuss Sections 501, 502, 503 and 504 of Title V of the Act.

#13 – Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Career and lifestyle assessment resources include public and private agencies (e.g., local, state, national) and materials (e.g., books, software) that are published by agencies such as the Department of Labor and the Department of Education.  Identify and describe five (5) resources that are used frequently by rehabilitation and mental health counselors to assist individuals with career exploration, job placement, supportive employment, etc.

#14 – Group

Select one (1) theory on group development.  Identify and briefly describe the stages of that theory, addressing what issues the group members are struggling with at each stage, and the roles and functions of the group leader. 

#15 – Evaluation & Assessment

You are filling in for the counselor who does the intake interviews at your treatment facility.  The intake interviewer normally collects both the psychobiosocial history and psychiatric mental status examination.  What information will you be collecting during the intake interview?

 

Spring 2009

#1 - Foundations

In regard to the counseling relationship:

a) Identify the qualities of an effective therapeutic alliance between counselor and client.

b) Explain why this alliance plays such a critical role in successful counseling.

In regard to counseling skills, provide one (1) example for each of the following:

a) Active listening

b) Open-ended question

c) Paraphrasing

d) “I” Message

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

You are a counselor at an urban community mental health center. The Vocational Rehabilitation counselor for an African-American male has referred him to you for “adjustment counseling” and “screening” for depression. The young man, married, age 22, is an L-3, L4 paraplegic, and was rendered unemployed as a carpenter. His disability is the result of a recent (6months) shooting. The shooting, by police, occurred when he shoved an officer after being stopped for a traffic violation and attempted to get in his car and drive away. He presents as hostile and apprehensive about speaking to you. However, he is articulate and describes himself as very tentative about having to be involved with another “white man's” organization.

1) As a counselor address primary issues related to the following?

a) Age of onset of disability

b) Culture

c) Gender?

2) Describe to what extent should you consider his level of cultural identity development?


#3 - Counseling in Community Settings

Throughout the past two decades we have seen a significant increase in the number of natural disasters, terroristic events, sexual assaults, identified cases of sexual abuse, crimes committed against vulnerable consumers, etc. As a result, community agencies have been enlisted to provide significantly more services focused on the treatment of traumatic stress, crisis intervention, disaster response and other services that may be experienced as stressful or as a source of secondary trauma by the counselors providing the services. Discuss the concept of Compassion Fatigue and ways that counselors can prevent it or deal effectively to minimize its effects on their professional and personal lives.


#4 - Medical Aspects

SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Many returning veterans of the Iraq-Afghanistan war have experienced traumatic brain injuries. They will require extensive neuropsychiatric, vocational and rehabilitation services and their families will require supportive counseling. Keeping them in mind, do the following:

a) Identify one (1) for each cognitive, behavioral, affective, and somatic symptom they are likely to experience;

b) Briefly discuss the impact TBI is likely to have on their families.

#5 - Legal & Ethical

Identify four (4) general ethical principles that are manifested or present in the ethical codes of most helping professions and provide examples of specific counselor behaviors that are anchored in each principle.


#6 - Human Sexuality

Explain why it is important for a Human Sexuality course to be included as a part of the curriculum for a graduate program in Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling.


#7 - Human Growth & Development

Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. Though there are varying paradigms describing attachment it is hypothesized that early attachment influences many aspects of a person adaptation to each stage of life.

1) Discuss what the following three (3) styles of attachment would look like in both an infant/young child and an adult:

a) avoidantly attached

b) ambivalently attached

c) securely attached

2) How does early attachment between child and caregiver in childhood influence the counseling relationship in adulthood?


#8 - Research

SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in terms of:

a) purpose;

b) approach;

c) results; and

d) utilization

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2008

#1 - Foundations

In regard to the counseling relationship:

a) Identify the qualities of an effective therapeutic alliance between counselor and client.

b) Explain why this alliance plays such a critical role in successful counseling.

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

You are a counselor for persons with disabilities at a community college counseling center. A 36-year-old married, Hispanic female, mother of three, ages18 months, three years and six years has self-referred for services. She is 12 months post injury having a L3-L4 spinal cord injury. She reports she has been depressed since the injury and cannot seem to get past feeling of guilt as she was driving too fast when the wreck occurred and her oldest child was also seriously injured but has since made a full recovery. She is attending the community college to learn medical transcription. She reports that she can do this work from home and still provide her children with care. She has been in the United States since she was 20, when she and her husband emigrated from Mexico.

As a counselor what are the primary issues and or concerns you would want to address? Include how these issues may or may not be interrelated.


#3 - Counseling in Community Settings

Identify and discuss the historical and professional foundations of community counseling. In addition, identify and discuss the current and emergent influences on Community Counseling. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#4 - Medical Aspects

Choose one (1) of the pain syndromes listed below: (a) describe characteristics of the particular pain syndrome; (b) describe psychosocial challenges that one must grapple with in treatment and hoped for recovery; and (c) list one or more standard treatment modalities recommended for that particular problem.

a) fibromyalgia

b) reflex sympathetic dystrophy

c) phantom limb pain

d) spinal cord injury

e) peripheral neuropathy


#5 - Legal & Ethical

Identify four (4) general ethical principles that are manifested or present in the ethical codes of most helping professions and provide examples of specific counselor behaviors that are anchored in each principle.


#6 - Human Growth and Development (DuDell) - LONG

In regard to the topic of emotional attachments:

a) Discuss the role of “secure emotional attachment” during the first five years of life, and

b) Discuss the role of “secure emotional attachment” and its impact on early school life, peer relationships, and self-esteem.


#7 - Human Sexuality

Explain why it is important for a Human Sexuality course to be included as a part of the curriculum for a graduate program in Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling.


#8 - Research

What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in (a) purpose, (b) approach, and (c) results?

#9 - Counseling Theories

For each of the following three theorists:

Theorists:

a) Beck

b) Berne

c) Perls

1) Write a brief statement identifying and discussing one of the primary or central tenets of his theory, and

2) Write a counselor response that would typify or clearly be seen as a response made to a client by the theorist.


#10 - Psychopathology

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders encountered by professional counselors. With regard to these disorders, do the following:

a) list all disorders in the mood disorders classification, and

b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for the treatment of same.


#11 - Substance Abuse

Ron, a 17-year-old high school senior gets picked up by the police for a DUI and possession of marijuana. Additionally, there was an open container of alcohol in the car. He had driven his friends home from a “keg” party at his house, which was unsupervised. This was fairly common practice in this suburban community and not of major concern due to the parent's similar involvement as teens. The keg had been provided by Ron's parents who were out of town for the weekend. Ron, normally a responsible individual and good student has in the last several months been missing school and his grades have severely dropped since being accepted into college. He has abandoned his old friendships in favor of a new group of peers that are more fun and like to hang out. His parents drink very heavily on a daily basis but identify themselves as social drinkers. His father posted bond and his parents chalk the whole incident up to “senioritis.” Ron has been referred to you, a mental health counselor, to determine the severity of the alcohol and drug problem and what, if any, interventions are indicated.

1) Identify probable risk and/or confounding factors (individual, family, peer, and community).

2) What specific developmental stage factors do you need to be aware off due to Ron's age?

3) Discuss how you would address this adolescent and determine the type and appropriate level of care you would recommend, specific issues you anticipate needing to be addressed, treatment approach and interventions to accomplish this task.

4) What family issues would you need to address?


#12 - Concepts and Applications

When providing rehabilitation services to adults we create a Written Individualized Rehabilitation Plan (IWRP). Please briefly explain the purpose of the IWRP and include in your answer what components are contained in the plan.


#13 - Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Identify and discuss the major historical, industrial, social, environmental factors that influenced the development of career counseling from the Industrial Revolution to the present? Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#14 - Group

What are Psychosocial and Personal Growth groups? How do they differ? How might they complement each other?


#15 - Evaluation & Assessment

You need to interview an individual (client) who is being admitted to your mental health facility and have been informed that the client is coherent, but seems to have a fairly severe disturbance in overall functioning. You are going to want to obtain both a complete mental status examination and a psychobiosocial history in this interview, or at least as much as possible. For this question identify the areas you would want to assess and the information you would like to obtain from the interview.

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Spring 2008

#1 - Foundations

a) Explain the concept of Active Listening in terms of its benefits for both the counselor and the client.

b) List and explain at least FIVE of the specific Active Listening skills.

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

Identify the stages of racial identity development.


#3 - Counseling in Community Settings

Describe the historical and professional foundations of community counseling and the factors that influenced its development. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#4 - Concepts and Applications

When providing rehabilitation services to adults we create an Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan (IWRP). Briefly explain the purpose of the IWRP and include in your answer what components are contained in the plan.


#5 - Legal & Ethical

Name and briefly describe the FIVE (5) moral principles which are the cornerstones of most human service's professions codes of ethics and guide the counselor decision making process.


#6 - Human Growth and Development

Compare and contrast the traditional model and life-span perspective of human growth and development.

Identify the elements of Erikson's psychosocial theory which make it an excellent example of the life-span perspective.

#7 - Human Sexuality

Describe why it is important for a Human Sexuality course to be a part of the professional preparation of a counselor.

#8 - Group (Richard) - SHORT

Compare and contrast the group's leader's role in Psychoeducational (behavioral) groups and Personal growth groups?

#9 - Counseling Theories

During her first session with her counselor, Lynn, a 26 year-old client, makes the following statement:

“Alex and I have been dating for about three months now and up until two nights ago he has been nothing but wonderful in every way. Two nights ago, however, he said he would call me after his softball game - but never called! He promised me when we first met that if he ever said he would call me, he would call me, and up to now, he always has. However, for the past two days I've been thinking about it, and I've decided to tell him that I want to end our relationship. I'm convinced that this is a good idea and I feel good about the decision, but ever since I made the decision I have been jittery, fidgety and acting nervous all the time.”

1a) Write out a Rogerian response to Lynn's above statement.

1b) In a short paragraph, explain why your Rogerian response to Lynn is a Rogerian response.

2a) Write out a Beck response to Lynn's above statement.

2b) In a short paragraph, explain why your Beck response to Lynn is a Beck response.

3a) Write out a Perls response to Lynn's above statement.

3b) In a short paragraph, explain why your Perls response to Lynn is a Perls response.


#10 - Psychopathology

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders encountered by professional counselors. With regard to these disorders, do the following:

a) list all disorders in the anxiety disorders classification, and

b) describe in detail standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for the treatment of same.


#11 - Substance Abuse

Multiple systems interact and contribute to an addictive disorder. Discuss in detail the contribution of the following biopsychosocial dimensions in the disease of alcoholism:

1) physiological;

2) cognitive/expectational;

3) psychosocial; and

4) ethnic and sociocultural factors.

#12 - Medical Aspects

Choose ONE (1) of the disabilities listed below and do the following:

a) describe the signs and symptoms associated with this disability;

b) describe functional limitations imposed by the disability; and

c) describe psychosocial limitations or challenges that one must grapple with in the adjustment process.

· traumatic brain injury

· cancer

· sensory impairments like blindness or deafness

· musculoskeletal impairments like low back injuries

· neurological impairments like epilepsy or MS

· rheumatic diseases like RA or lupus


#13 - Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Identify the FOUR (4) major career development theory groups. Identify one theorist(s) for each group and describe the major characteristics of the theory. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#14 - Research

Identify THREE (3) reasons why training in scientific thinking and methodologies are important for professional counselors.


#15 - Evaluation & Assessment

Validity and reliability are both very important testing concepts. Why are they important? Explain validity and the different types of validity (i.e., face, content, criterion, and construct). Explain reliability and the different types of reliability (i.e., test-retest, split-half, and parallel forms).

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2007

#1 - Foundations

Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Include in this dialogue an example (and label them as such) of the counselor using each of the seven (7) following listening skills:

1) a paraphrase

2) a feeling reflection

3) an open question

4) a closed question

5) an informational question

6) an encouraging response

7) a confrontation

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

Give a brief discussion concerning how aspects of culture and age of onset of disability may impact a person's perceptions of self-worth?

#3 - Counseling in Community Settings

Identify and describe the essential counseling services that are critical in community counseling, including crisis intervention, prevention and advocacy.

#4 - Concepts and Applications

Discuss the ways in which the roles and functions of the Rehabilitation Counselor have changed since the 1970's. In your discussion, describe the social, economic and political realities that have most likely influenced these changes.

#5 - Legal & Ethical

Identify at least four (4) primary ethical precepts or principles that are identified and embraced by all helping professions, and discuss the general behavioral obligations they impose upon rehabilitation counselors and mental health counselors, including a discussion of behaviors that these principles require, prohibit, discourage, or encourage.


#6 - Human Growth & Development/Human Sexuality

Identify Erik Erikson's eight (8) stages of human growth and development and the specific psychosocial tasks associated with each stage.

a) Discuss the impact of “the securely-attached” caregiver relationship during the first year of life.

b) Identify and describe how early emotional attachment might influence adult love relationships in terms of issues such as trust, communication, emotional closeness, etc.

#7 - Research

What is meant by the term “empirical research”?

#8 - Counseling Theories

Consider each of the following five, alphabetically listed counseling theorists:

1) Ellis

2) Frankl

3) Freud

4) Perls

5) Rogers

AND

Consider conducting an in-dept, intake counseling session with the following individual:

Maria, a 54 year old Hispanic woman, a waitress at a restaurant with an attached lounge, recently went through a divorce and has custody of her two teenage children, has been abstinent for the past year, is attending a local junior college to earn her A.S. degree, has been attending her AA meetings regularly, and comes to see you today because, as she tells you, “I have a number of personal issues associated with my alcoholism that I want to address”.

In terms of conducting an in-depth, intake counseling session with Maria:

a) explain why each of the above five theorists (theoretical approaches) could be appropriate with Maria; and,

b) offer (write out) five responses that could be appropriate in a counseling session with Maria that would be indicative of each of the five theorists.

#9 - Psychopathology

Identify and briefly describe three (3) mental health disorders that can be considered “trauma syndromes”, i.e., have their origin in trauma such as violence, childhood sexual or physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, natural or man-made disasters, torture, etc. Briefly describe how each of the three is treated in terms of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy.

#10 - Substance Abuse

An answer to the question “What causes alcohol dependence and abuse?” is complex and currently addressed through a biopsychosocial approach to addiction. A public health model looks at the problem of the disease of alcoholism at three levels: the agent (alcohol), the host (the individual) and the environment in which the agent and the host come together. Discuss these three areas in respect to how each contributes to the fact that many individuals will use alcohol in a sufficient quantity to result in alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse.


#11 - Medical Aspects

Chronic pain is a significant and costly problem in American health care. Identify two specific common pain conditions. Briefly describe the treatment alternatives that are employed in dealing with said conditions.

#12 - Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Identify and discuss one of the following major career development theories:

a) Trait and Factor

b) Social Learning and Cognitive Theories

c) Developmental Theories

d) Person-in-Environment Perspective

Include in your answer the name of the theorist(s), basic assumptions, key terms and outcomes.


#13 - Group Theories

Identify a model of group development and describe the role of the therapist in each stage of the model you choose.

#14 - Evaluation & Assessment

Explain the concept of intelligence. What are the practical reasons for measuring this construct in rehabilitation and mental health settings, and possible valid and invalid uses of the results? What are the three IQs measured by the WAIS-III and what do you know about these measures in terms of mean, standard deviation, standard error of measurements, norms, confidence bands for IQ ranges, etc.? What cultural issues should a counselor be sensitive to in IQ testing?

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Spring 2007

#1 - Foundations

a) Explain the concept of Active Listening in terms of its benefits for both the counselor and the client.

b) List and explain at least five of the specific Active Listening skills.

c) Give an example from your work for each of these specific skills.

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

Conventional counseling theories typically emphasize the experience of the individual, in the therapeutic relationship. This is seen as one of a relationship between clinician and client. This approach may be inconsistent with the cultural beliefs/norms of many minority groups. Discuss these differences in relationship to the value of “self” in relationship to family, extended family and community. Also, how could language be an issue between counselor and client, when counseling some minority group individuals?


#3 - Counseling in Community Settings

Identify and discuss the historical and professional foundations of community counseling. In addition, identify and discuss the current and emergent influences on Community Counseling. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#4 - Concepts and Applications

Trace the legislative history of the state/federal rehabilitation program for the last three (3) decades, indicating the most important elements of each act.

#5 - Evaluation & Assessment

What areas are typically covered in a complete and full psychobiosocial assessment (these are the traditional areas covered in the psychosocial history and comprehensive mental status examination). Identify the different areas that the interviewer might review or assess, and briefly describe them.

#6 - Human Growth & Development

“Secure emotional attachment” plays an important role in healthy development during the first few years of life. Discuss “secure emotional attachment” in terms of:

a) the type and quality of the caregiver-child relationship; and

b) the impact of “secure emotional attachment” on an individual's self-esteem, sense of self, and future interpersonal relationships.


#7 - Human Sexuality

Please identify the most common long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Identify and discuss the typical counseling goals and therapeutic interventions used in working with adult survivors of early sexual abuse.

#8 - Counseling Theories

In a short essay format, answer each of the following items/questions:

1) Identify three counseling theorists - one phenomenologist, one cognitive theoristandone behaviorist;

2) In terms of their a priori assumptions regarding the human being, identify and describe three ways in which the three above theorists you identified are similar; and,

3) In terms of their a priori assumptions regarding the human being, identify and describe three ways in which the three above theorists you identified are different.

#9 - Research

What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in terms of:

a) purpose;

b) approach; and

c) results.

#10 - Psychopathology

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders encountered by professional counselors. With regard to these disorders, do the following:

a) list all disorders in the mood disorder classification; and

b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for treatment of these disorders.


#11 - Substance Abuse

During an intake interview with a new client, he or she says to you, “And lately I have been drinking a lot.”

In a brief yet cogent essay, state what you would do to determine whether this individual “has a situational drinking problem” or “is an alcoholic.”

#12 - Medical Aspects

Cardiovascular impairments, such as heart disease, are a leading cause of disability and mortality for both men and women. With regard to these impairments, do the following:

a) List signs and symptoms associated with one specific type of a cardiovascular impairment;

b) Describe two physical functional limitations associated with this impairment; and

c) Briefly describe psychosocial implications of cardiovascular diseases.

#13 - Career and Lifestyle Assessment

What are the major historical, industrial, social and environmental factors that influenced the development of career counseling? In what respects has career theory impacted the development of career counseling? Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#14 - Group

Identify and briefly describe the stages of development that occur in personal growth groups.

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2006

#1 - Foundations

Present a client/counselor dialogue(s) from your own counseling experience, demonstrating in this dialogue (labeling them as such) the counselor using the following:

a) a paraphrase

b) a feeling reflection

c) an open question

d) a closed question

e) an informational question

f) an encouraging response

g) a confrontation

#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

A white male counselor is assigned a 20 year old female Mexican immigrant of three years, who has suffered a L3-L4 herniated disc that has left her in a chronic pain. She is 12 months post injury and reports no progress in managing her pain.

a) Discuss issues related to disability, gender and culture of which the counselor should be aware.

b) Also are there issues related to his own racial identity development that could impact the clinical relationship a white male counselor might have with this client? Defend your answer.

#3 - Medical Aspects

You are a counselor for academic support services for students with disabilities at a major university. A student, age 23, with (a) osteogenesis imperfecta, or (b) multiple sclerosis [CHOOSE EITHER (a) OR (b)] has been accepted and admitted to your school and will be living in a dorm. Explain in detail what you know about: (1) signs, symptoms, course, and prognosis of the disease; (2) functional limitations imposed by the disease; (3) environmental and learning accommodations that must be made for him/her, and (4) what psychosocial issues are likely to arise for which you will need to provide supportive counseling.


#4 - Concepts and Applications

List the components of an Individual Plan for Employment (IPE) and briefly explain the purpose of each.

#5 - Evaluation & Assessment

Validity and reliability are critically important aspects of psychometric testing. Explain what both are, and the different types of validity and reliability that are important in testing and measurement.

#6 - Human Growth and Development

Please answer parts a & b, OR a & c:

a) Discuss the similarities between Freud and Erikson's views of the significant developmental tasks within the first six (6) years of a child's life.

b) Compare and contrast the psychosexual and psychosocial models of human growth and development.

c) Identify Erikson's eight (8) stages of growth and development, and the specific life tasks associated with each stage.

#7 - Human Sexuality

a) Please identify the phases of Kaplan's human sexual response cycle and the dysfunctions associated with each one; and

b) Please identify four (4) of the ten (10) conditions Weinstein and Rosen note which indicate when a therapist should refer a client to a sex therapist.

#8 - Counseling Theories

Assume that you are working as a counselor at a rehabilitation/mental health center, and a client, George, says to you in your first session with him, “I've been in recovery from alcoholism for two months now, and I go to five AA meetings a week. Yesterday, my sponsor said I need help with my stinkin' thinking.” How could the following three (3) counseling theorists be helpful in your counseling with George? (Write one succinct yet thorough paragraph for each of the three (3) theorists):

a) Albert Ellis;

b) Donald Meichenbaum; and,

c) Carl Rogers

#9 - Research

A research institute at USF is proposing to implement then evaluate a new type of psychotherapy for use with persons with somatoform disorders. Grant funding is being requested from the National Institute of Health. Identify two (2) ethical issues/rules that must be addressed in the proposal and describe why these issues would be important for both the participants and researchers involved.

#10 - Psychopathology

Identify and briefly describe three (3) mental health disorders that can be considered Atrauma syndromes@, i.e., have an origin in trauma such as violence, childhood sexual or physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, natural or man-made disasters, torture, etc.

#11 - Substance Abuse/Ethics

George, a self-proclaimed recovering substance abuser, is a counselor at the local community substance abuse treatment agency. He is one of the best workers at the agency and in many ways he is too good. George works an excessive amount of hours every week. He is clearly “married” to his job. Many staff members have expressed personal concern about George's health, excessive smoking, his obesity and lack of exercise. Periodic admonitions about his excessive hours and poor habits have done little to affect George's pattern of work/living.

How could George's excessive behavior influence the quality of his counseling relationships and potentially impact clients? Identify the ethical issues and performance issues that would be of concern to you.


#12 - Counseling in Community Settings

Identify and discuss the historical, current and emergent influences on community counseling. Please address the following issues in your response: a) historical overview and influences; b). managed care and its influence; c) technology and counseling and its influence; and d) professional organizations and their influence. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#13 - Career and Lifestyle Assessment

What is career counseling and how does it differ from “counseling” in general. What are the major historical and social factors that influenced its development? In what respects has career theory impacted the development of career counseling? Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#14 - Group

Identify and briefly describe the stages of group development?

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Spring 2006


#1 - Foundations

What skills would you consider to be most important in your “toolbox” of Interpersonal Counseling Skills? List at least five, explain why they are important, and give an example of each from your own professional experience.


#2 - Social & Cultural Foundations

You are a counselor for persons with disabilities at a community college counseling center. A 24-year-old married, Hispanic female, mother of one, age18 months, has self-referred for services. She is 12 months post injury having a L3-L4 spinal cord injury. At the time of injury she was taking her child to her mothers as she was on her way to work. Her child suffered multiple injuries including a head injury, which has left her needing attendant care on an ongoing basis. She reports that she blames herself for the wreck as she was driving too fast at the time it occurred. She states that she continues to have feelings of shame, is often sad and has frequent headaches. Her doctor has told her the headaches are stress-related and not related to her injury. She is attending the community college to learn medical transcription. She reports that she can do this work from home and still provide her daughter with some of the attendant services needed. She has been in the United States since she was 14, when she and her parents emigrated from Mexico.

As a counselor what are the primary issues and or concerns you would want to address?


#3 - Medical Aspects

Choose three (3) of the disabilities listed below and do the following: (a) describe signs and symptoms associated with each; (b) describe functional limitations imposed by the disability; and (c) describe psychosocial limitations or challenges that one must grapple with in the adjustment process.

  • 1) traumatic or acquired brain injury
  • 2) epilepsy
  • 3) cancer
  • 4) rheumatic diseases like RA or lupus
  • 5) neuromuscular disease like MS or ALS
  • 6) musculoskeletal impairments like low back injuries
  • 7) sensory impairments like blindness or deafness

#4 - Human Growth & Development

Please identify Erik Erikson's eight (8) stages of growth and development, and identify the life tasks associated with each stage.


#5 - Counseling in Community Settings

Identify and discuss the major factors from the early 1900s to the present that influenced community counseling. Address the following issues in your response: (a) historical overview of community counseling; (b) professional organizations that contributed to its development; (c) current and emergent influences on community counseling (e.g., Managed Care); and (d) credentialing. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#6 - Concepts & Applications

Trace attitudes toward, and treatment of, persons with physical disabilities and psychiatric disorders from 1960 to present.


#7 - Individual Evaluation & Assessment

1) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 is the most widely used instrument for assessing psychopathology. Ten basic clinical scales are always obtained. Which of the following is one of these scales?

a) Agoraphobia

b) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

c) Psychopathic Deviate

d) Schizoaffective Disorder

2) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III has a mean IQ of 100 for all age groups. What is the standard deviation for all the age groups?

a) 10

b) 15

c) 20

d) 25

3) A counselor collecting information about a consumer's family history, educational history, drug and alcohol use, legal history, and past treatments would be obtaining a:

a) Mental Status Examination

b) Global Assessment of Functioning Rating

c) Functional Assessment Rating

d) Psychobiosocial History

4) A subject has a score of 80 on a test that has a standard error of measurement of 5. What is the 95 % confidence band for the subject's true score?

a) 75 to 85

b) 70 to 90

c) 65 to 95

d) 60 to 100

5) When a test has gained professional acceptance for measuring what it claims to measure, and has become a standard by which newer tests claiming to measure the same would be judged it has:

a) Construct Validity

b) Criterion Validity

c) Content Validity

d) Concurrent Validity

6) The Strong Interest Inventory and Self-Directed Search use John Holland's Occupational Themes. Which of the following is one of these themes?

a) Expressed Interests

b) Numerical Aptitude

c) Enterprising

d) Analytic


#8 - Counseling Theories

Assume that you are working as a counselor at a rehabilitation/mental health center. A new client, Mary, has been referred to you. Mary is a 24 year old, Caucasian female, who lost her left leg six months ago in an automobile accident. For the past month she has been living in her mother's house, has not gone out except for doctor's appointments, and has been very depressed. During your first interview with Mary, she says to you, “Work? No one would want to be around me. I only have one leg; I'm half a woman.”

Briefly answer the four following questions:

1) How would Albert Ellis explain Mary's “problem”?

2) Using an Ellis approach, what would you do to help Mary?

3) How would Victor Frankl explain Mary's “problem”?

4) Using a Frankl approach, what would you do to help Mary?


#9 - Research

Identify and describe three (3) reasons why training in scientific thinking and methodologies are important for rehabilitation/mental health counselors.


#10 - Psychopathology

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders encountered by professional counselors. With regard to these anxiety disorders, do the following: (a) list all disorders in the mood disorder classification, and (b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for the disorders.


#11 - Ethics

As a therapist in an inner-city community based counseling center, you are responsible for seeing clients who present for numerous types of problems. Six weeks ago you started working with a 28 year old Asian female client who presents in your session tonight with the following symptoms: helpless/hopelessness, despondent and occasionally unresponsive to your questions, states “I don't want to be in this world anymore,” and feels close only to her mother, who is recently deceased. Upon further questioning, you learn the client has never attempted to hurt herself, but has come as close as sitting on the bathroom floor with a razor. She trusts you and voluntarily comes to therapy; however, she is hesitant to ask friends or family for help as she fears she might lose her kids.

Answer the following:

  • 1) Describe how you would assess client's lethality or risk of further self-harm at this point.
  • 2) What are the potential legal and ethical issues in this case and how would you address them with the client?
  • 3) What other things might you do to address your clinical and ethical responsibilities?

#12 - Human Sexuality

According to the presentation on sexual enhancement, identify the eight (8) barriers to satisfying sex. Please provide an example for each of these barriers.


#13 - Career & Lifestyle Assessment

Define and discuss “career development” and the major factors that influenced its inception and emergence. Include in your response: (a) historical development of career counseling; (b) the characteristics of at least two vocational development theories; (c) the future of work in America; and (d) strengths and weaknesses of the uses of the internet in career development. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.


#14 - Group/Substance Abuse

Identify and briefly comment on three (3) major differences between: (a) an AA Group and (b) a personal growth group run by a professional counselor.


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2005

#1 - Counseling Skills

In detail, address the following items: (a) explain the concept of Active Listening; (b) list and explain at least five of the specific Active Listening Skills; and (c) give at least two case examples of how you have used Active Listening in some recent counseling situations.


#2 - Concepts & Applications

Vocational evaluation is a critical component of the overall rehabilitation process. Briefly respond to the following items regarding the vocational evaluation process: (a) explain the purpose of the vocational evaluation process and describe the type of client most likely to be referred for an evaluation; and (b) list and describe each step in the process, explaining the importance of each.

#3 - Social & Cultural

You are a counselor at an urban rehabilitation center. A 26-year-old, married, Hispanic male, father of three (ages 1, 4 and 7) has self-referred for services. He is 12 months post injury having L3-L4 level paralysis (i.e. he is not able to use and does not have sensation in his legs, but can use his arms and hands) the result of a shooting in a gang related incident. At the time of injury he was a construction worker, and had just left the job site when the shooting occurred. He was not part of a gang, but does admit he was in the neighborhood attempting to buy some marijuana and further admits to being an occasional user. He reports his primary reason for seeking services is to return to work as his family is poor and it is his responsibility to provide for the family. He is a legal alien and is eligible for your services.

As his counselor address primary issues and/or concerns which you may need to explore, related to his disability. In the context of disability, in detail, explain the impact and relatedness you might anticipate for each of the following: (a) culture, (b) gender, (c) developmental issues/ onset of disability, and (d) identify other concerns you might have.

How might the above concerns interrelate and what impact might that have on your counseling approach?

#4 - Ethics and Substance Abuse

Briefly answer each of the following questions: (a) what is the role of ethics in counseling, and (b) what ethical issues would be pertinent to running a substance abuse group?

#5 - Medical Aspects

Problems surrounding pain disorders are among the most prevalent in primary care medical settings. With regard to these, in detail, do the following: (a) distinguish between chronic pain vs. other forms of pain problems, (b) identify two (2) disabilities that are associated with pain and describe (1) physical functional limitations imposed by the disability, and (2) psychosocial limitations or challenges that one must grapple with in the adjustment process.

#6 - Counseling Theory - IP-II

A client named Alice is talking to her counselor about a serious problem, and says, "I had been going with John for about two years and we were planning to get engaged this fall. About a month ago, however, he had too much to drink when we were at a party, which was very unusual for him. And when we got into an argument on the way home from the party, he said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal-- he had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told him I wanted to `call it all off and never see him again'. He really hurt my feelings by what he said, yet I just can't believe I did what I did."

Briefly answer each of the following four questions: (a) theoretically, how would a Rogers-oriented therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client - basically, what would be his or her theoretical approach?; (b) provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Rogerian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her; (c) theoretically, how would an Ellis-oriented therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client - basically what would be his or her theoretical approach?; and (d) provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate an Ellisonian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.

#7 - Human Sexuality

Describe in detail Helen Singer Kaplan's human sexual response cycle. Provide and define one example of a sexual dysfunction associated with each stage.

#8 - Research

Briefly explain the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in: (a) purpose, (b) approach, and (c) results.

#9 - Counseling in Community Settings

In detail, identify and discuss the major factors that influenced community counseling from the early 1900s to the present. Address the following issues in your response: (a) historical overview of community counseling; (b) professional organizations that contributed to its development; (c) current and emergent influences on community counseling (e.g., Managed Care); and (d) credentialing. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#10 - Career and Lifestyle Assessment

Discuss in detail “career development” and the major factors that influenced its development. Include in your response: (a) the historical development of career counseling; (b) at least two vocational development theorists who influenced career development; (c) some examples of standardized testing and their role in career development; and (d) the strengths and weaknesses of the internet in career development. Cite references from the professional literature to support your responses.

#11 - Psychopathology

Identify and briefly describe three (3) mental health disorders that can be considered “trauma syndromes,” i.e., have an origin in trauma such as violence, childhood sexual or physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, natural or man-made disasters, torture, etc.

#12 - Human Growth and Development

In detail, compare and contrast the traditional and life-span perspectives on human growth and development. Describe the seven basic characteristics of the life-span approach.

#13 - Evaluation and Testing

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely used psychometric instrument for the assessment of psychopathology, and over the years a number of scales have been developed using its item base. Describe in detail what this test “looks like” in terms of items and format. What are the basic clinical and validity scales, and what do you know about each? How would you explain to a client why you were asking them to take this test? Why would a counselor want results from the MMPI-2 and how might they help beyond a clinical assessment interview?


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Spring 2005

#1 - Social & Cultural Foundations

You are a counselor at an urban mental health center. A 31-year-old married, African American male, father of two (ages 4 and 7) has self-referred for services. He is 12 months post injury having suffered a L-3-L-4 spinal cord injury, the result of a shooting. The event occurred when he stopped for gas late one night and the perpetrators shot him as he entered the store. At the time of injury he was a driver of heavy equipment for a highway construction company. He reports his primary reason for seeking services is that he cannot return to work, and is depressed as he can no longer provide for his family. Further, he reports a history of alcohol abuse which has worsened since his injury. As a mental health counselor, thoroughly address the primary issues and or concerns which you may need to explore, regarding his disability as it may or may not regard his: (a) culture; (b) gender; (c) developmental issues/onset of disability; and (d) identify other concerns. How might the above concerns interrelate and what impact might they have on your counseling approach?

#2 - Foundations of Mental Health Counseling

What would you consider to be the most important in your “toolbox” of Relationship Building Skills? List at least five, thoroughly explain why they are important, and give an example of each from your own experience.

#3 - Legal & Ethical Issues

Tom and Lina, a couple who moved to the United States from Peru 13 years ago, are voluntarily coming to therapy with a complaint of marital difficulties due to Tom's persistent jealousy throughout their marriage. They are in their mid-thirties, with a teenage son and an 11 year old daughter. Both work in white collar jobs. After two sessions, you find out that Tom has hit Lina in the past, most recently about one month ago when he slapped her on the face after accusing her of having an affair. In great detail, answer the following: (a) describe how you would assess risk of future dangerous behavior at this point; (b) what are the potential legal and ethical issues in this case and how would you address them with the client; (c) what other things might you do to address your clinical responsibilities?

#4 - Medical Aspects of Disability

Choose three of the disabilities listed below and thoroughly do the following: (a) describe signs and symptoms associated with each; (b) describe physical functional limitations imposed by the disability; and (c) describe psychosocial limitations or challenges that one must grapple with in the adjustment process.

· traumatic or acquired brain injury

· spinal cord injury

· epilepsy

· neuromuscular disease like M.S. or ALS

· cancer

· cardiovascular disorders

#5 - Individual Evaluation & Assessment

The basic definition of test validity is that the test measures what it claims to measure, and for test reliability that it measures consistently. For this question, briefly identify and describe the different subtypes of validity and reliability.

#6 - Group Theories

List the stages of group development and briefly describe each.

#7 - Human Growth & Development

Erik Erickson identified eight stages of development across the human lifespan. Briefly identify and describe the different stages of development.

#8 - Human Sexuality

Briefly respond to the following: (a) define paraphilia and give an example of one form of paraphilia.

#9 - Research

Briefly explain what the differences are between quantitative and qualitative research in: (a) purpose; (b) approach; and (c) results.

#10 - Psychopathology

Briefly identify three mental health disorders that can be considered “trauma syndromes”, i.e., have an origin in trauma such as violence, childhood sexual or physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, natural or man-made disasters, torture, etc.

#11 - Counseling Theories

Consider the three following theorists: (1) Rogers; (2) Freud; and (3) Perls. In detail, answer the following three questions: (a) how are these three theorists similar, from an a priori, fundamental perspective; (b) how are these three theorists different, in terms of how an individual develops a neurosis and gets in trouble; and (c) how are these theorists different, in terms of how a counselor would help a client struggling with a neurosis and in trouble?

#12 - Concepts & Applications

Thoroughly delineate the major components of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act and the 1973 Rehabilitation Act; describe the way(s) in which vocational rehabilitation counselors apply these laws in everyday practice; and cogently synthesize the impact these laws have on persons with disabilities.

#13 - Career& Lifestyle Assessment

In detail, discuss “career development” and the major factors that influenced its development. Include in your response: (a) major factors that influenced the history of career counseling; (b) at least one vocational development theory that influenced career development; (c) the role of standardized testing in career development; and (d) the role of computers in career counseling.

#14 - Counseling in Community Settings

Discuss community counseling and the factors that influenced its origin and development. Thoroughly address the following issues in your response: (a) historical overview of community counseling; (b) deinstitutionalization; (c) professional organizations that contributed to its development; and (d) current and emergent influences on community counseling (e.g., Managed Care).

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

Fall 2004

#1

As a therapist in an inner-city community based counseling center, you are responsible for seeing clients who present for numerous types of problems. Six weeks ago you started working with a 28 year old indigent, uninsured female client who presents in your session tonight with the following symptoms: Helplessness/hopelessness, lack of interest in family and friends, states she no longer wants to be “in this world,” has had thoughts of slashing her wrists on the bathroom floor, and feels close only to her mother, who is recently deceased. Upon further questioning, you learn the client has never attempted to hurt herself, but has come as close as sitting on the bathroom floor with a razor. Client is connected to you and voluntarily comes to therapy, however, she is hesitant to ask friends or family for help as she fears she might lose her kids.

Answer the following: a) Describe how you would assess client's lethality or risk of further self harm at this point, b) What are the potential legal and ethical issues in this case and how would you address them with the client?, c) What other things might you do to address your clinical responsibilities?, and d) What would be appropriate community resources, legal considerations, etc.?

#2

Consider each of the following five, alphabetically listed counseling theorists: 1) Berne, 2) Ellis, 3) Frankl, 4) Perls, 5) Rogers

Consider conducting an in-depth, intake counseling session with the following individual:

Alice, 56 year old Hispanic woman, a waitress at a restaurant with an attached lounge, recently went through a divorce and has custody of her two teenage children, has been abstinent for the past year, is attending a local junior college to earn her A.S. degree, has been attending her AA meetings regularly, and comes to see you today because, as she tells you, “I have a number of personal issues associated with my alcoholism that I want to address”.

In terms of your conducting an in-depth, intake counseling session with Alice: (a) explain why each of the above five theorists (theoretical approaches) could be appropriate with Alice; and (b) offer (write out) responses (one per theorist) that could be appropriate in a counseling session with Alice that would be indicative of each of the five theorists.

#3

Discuss the major mandates of three of the most influential pieces of legislation passed over the past five decades. Delineate the primary differences between the three. Discuss the impact of each on the field of rehabilitation in general and on the lives of people with disabilities in particular.

#4

In two class lectures, and in two of the textbook chapters, there was comprehensive coverage of the physiological and psychological effects of alcohol on the individual who uses, abuses, and/or becomes dependent on alcohol. Write a brief essay on the medical aspects of alcoholism. Discuss the agent, host, and environment. This would include basic metabolism, effects on tissues, organs and systems, and the resultant pathological effects.

#5

Career and lifestyle assessment is an important role and function of the rehabilitation counselor. Identify and discuss the major historical events, legislation and some examples of theories that influenced the development of career and life style assessment. In addition, identify and discuss the major components of a career and life style assessment. Include in your response the tools of assessment and the individual characteristics (e.g., interest, aptitude) you would include in your assessment. Be sure to indicate how your assessment would address the needs of special populations (e.g., individuals with disabilities, women, and people of color).

#6

You are a counselor at a rural rehabilitation center. A 26-year-old married, Hispanic male, father of 2 (ages 4 and 7) has self-referred for services. He is 12 months post injury having an amputation of both legs above the knee resulting from a farming accident. At the time of injury he was a migrant worker, and was at work when injured. He reports his primary reason for seeking services is that he wants to return to work as his family is poor and it is his responsibility to provide for the family. He is a legal alien and is eligible for services.

As a counselor address primary issues and or concerns to which you may need to explore, related to:

1) disability as it may or may not relate to, (a) culture, (b) gender, (c) developmental issues/ onset of disability, and (d) identify other concerns; and 2) how might the above concerns interrelate and what impact might that have on your counseling approach?

#7

Demonstrate an understanding of group dynamics by describing: 1) how norms develop and what norms are effective and ineffective for the group setting; 2) how group members' roles develop and how role performance impacts (facilitates and hinders) group development; and 3) the relevance of this "here and now" process in group interaction to real life.

#8

Validity and reliability are important concepts in both testing and research. Why are they so important? What problems develop when either is weak? Offer a basic one or two sentence definition for each concept (validity and reliability). Then explain: 1) what are the different types of validity (identify and define them), and 2) what are the different types of reliability (identify and define them).

#9

Bev and Marcus have been married for almost nineteen years. Both are professionals, well-educated, and have twins who are graduating from high school later this year. They sought counseling about six months ago but agreed that “‘Dr. Know-It-All' didn't help one bit.” They are seeking couples counseling due to the following difficulties: 1) Bev is concerned about their waning sex life. She described Marcus as having a very low sex drive. Bev noted that their sex life is “like the Mojave Desert,” 2) Marcus described Bev as “having huge control issues” and notes long-term conflict concerning money and sex. He also stated that “he was pretty sure she's messing around on the Internet,” and 3) both also note difficulties such as poor communication, an inability to resolve conflict and a lack of fun in their lives. But both agreed that “things were pretty good in the beginning.”

Please respond to the following: 1) what do you want to learn and/or determine during the initial session, 2) when taking the sexual history of this couple, what information is important, 3) identify the primary treatment goals in working with Bev and Marcus, and 4) identify appropriate community referrals, readings, or other adjuncts to couples counseling.

#10

Explain the concept of Active Listening. Why is it important and useful in counseling? What are some of the specific Active Listening skills? Identify and define the different Active Listening responses. What are its limitations and when might it be problematic? Give at least two case examples of how you have used Active Listening in a counseling situation.

#11

Rheumatic diseases (e.g., rheumatic arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus, scleroderma) are thought to be virally induced and autoimmune in that the body, after exposure to the virus, begins to attack itself. These diseases effect soft parts of the musculoskeletal system as well as other body systems and share many characteristic symptoms and signs, functional limitations, and psychosocial issues. With regard to these chronic illnesses, do the following: 1) list 3 symptoms and signs, 2 functional limitations, and 1 psychosocial problem experienced by people who have rheumatic diseases; 2) identify 2 medical treatment modalities (either traditional or alternative medicine) which are currently being used with these disorders; and 3) address counseling considerations relevant to persons with these illnesses.

#12

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders encountered by rehabilitation and mental health professionals. With regard to this classification, do the following: 1) list all disorders in the classification; 2) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder; and 3) discuss comorbidity issues implicated in the more severe disorders.

Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

November 14, 2003

1. (a) Discuss current social, medical, technical and economic trends impacting the field of rehabilitation counseling AND cogently project the impact of each trend on the practice of rehabilitation counseling, (b) Discuss how federal rehabilitation legislation enacted between 1970 and 1990 addressed similar trends.

2. Anxiety and mood disorders are the most prevalent disorders encountered by rehabilitation/mental health professionals. Choose one of these classifications and do the following:
(a) List all disorders in the group.
(b) Describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder.
(c) Discuss ways in which symptoms of these disorders would interfere with psychosocial and/or occupational functioning (be specific)

3. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Society of Addictive Medicine (ASAM), a category under the American Medical Association (AMA), have determined that alcoholism is classified as a disease. Counselors dealing with clients who have substance abuse issues find that these clients do not know that alcoholism is classified as a disease, and that they will either argue against this, or use it to manipulate treatment. One of the best tools to have the client accept the need for treatment is to present them with why alcoholism satisfies the "disease concept", be prepared for arguments against it, and be able to present alternatives. Please discuss the seven major points of alcoholism that allows it to satisfy the classification of a disease. For each point, give reasons why it is important and show how it impacts both the individual and perhaps society. Also, discuss the disadvantages involved with adopting the "disease concept", and how you would counter these arguments.

4. Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Give examples in this dialogue (and label them as such) of the counselor using the following:

4. a paraphrase
5. a feeling reflection
6. an open question
7. a closed question
8. an informational question
9. an encouraging response

5. You are a counselor at an urban community mental health center. The Vocational Rehabilitation counselor for an African-American male has referred him to you for "adjustment counseling" and "screening" for depression. The young man, married, age 22, is an L-3, L4 paraplegic, and was rendered unemployed as a carpenter. His disability is the result of a recent (6 months) shooting. The shooting, by police, occurred when he shoved an officer after being stopped for a traffic violation and attempted to get in his car and drive away. He presents as hostile and apprehensive about speaking to you. However, he is articulate and describes himself as very tentative about having to be involved with another "white man's" organization.

A. As a counselor, address primary issues related to the following:
1. Onset of disability as it may or may not relate to culture;
2. Systemic and/or personal pathological issues possibly related to:
a. Depression
b. Suspicion
c. Hostility
3. To what would you attribute each of #2 (a., b., and c.)

B. To what extent should you consider yours or his level of cultural identity development? Defend your response.

C. Briefly discuss how "multiple oppressions" may be an issue in this scenario.

6. During a counseling session with one of your 25 year old clients, Sandra, she says to you, "Ever since Robert and I ended our relationship three months ago, I just have been a ‘home-body'. I really want to go out and meet people, especially if I could meet a nice guy, but when I am invited to parties and gatherings I chicken out. I find some excuse not to go."

For this COMP question, write two brief, yet cogent and thorough essays:

1. In this essay: (1) Identify a cognitive therapist whose theoretical approach to counseling and therapy could be helpful to Sandra. (2) Within this theoretical approach, What specific technique could be helpful with Sandra? And (3) Theoretically, Why would this approach and this technique be helpful with Sandra?

2. In this essay: (1) Identify a behavioral therapist whose theoretical approach to counseling and therapy could be helpful to Sandra. (2) Within this theoretical approach, What specific technique could be helpful with Sandra? And (3) Theoretically, Why would this approach and this technique be helpful with Sandra?

7. Choose four of the disabilities listed below and do the following: (a) describe signs and symptoms associated with each, and (b) describe physical, functional and psychosocial limitations imposed by each.

1. Systemic lupus (SLE)
2. Traumatic or acquired brain injury
3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
4. Spinal cord injury
5. Blindness/low vision
6. Deafness/hearing impairment
7. Epilepsy
8. Multiple sclerosis (MS)

8. You are doing career counseling with a person involved in a workers compensation civil action. Her attorney is asking you to determine future employability. The client is a 46 year old white female with right and left hand carpal tunnel involvement. She has had surgeries, one on each arm, with no reported relief. She has a high school diploma, and 22 years experience as a secretary with the same insurance company. She has had just this one job, and has been unable to return to work due to her disability since her company fired her. She lives in a small rural town. Further, she is divorced and the mother of two teenagers.

a. How would a transferable skills assessment be beneficial in this situation?
b. What is a labor market survey and would it be beneficial in this situation? Why or why not?
c. What assessment and/or information resources would prove useful and why?
d. How might secondary gain be involved in this situation?

9. As a therapist in an inner-city community based counseling center, you are responsible for seeing clients who present for numerous types of problems. Recently, you started working with a family in which the 9-year old daughter presents with the following symptoms: enuresis at school, refusing to bathe regularly, and lying to her parents. The parents' main complaint is the child's grades; however, you've suspected disciplinary problems and possible physical or sexual abuse, given the girl's symptoms. In tonight's session, the stepfather states things were "out of control" last week. The mother agrees, saying she "busted" the daughter's nose. Upon further questioning, you learn the mother bloodied the 9-year old's nose by slapping her. Finally, the mother states she had to walk away from her daughter, because she "wanted to pummel" her.

Answer the following:
Describe your next line of questioning at this point.
1. What are the potential legal and ethical issues in this case?
2. How would you address these concerns?

10. The Human Sexuality course noted several psychological, sexual, and interpersonal consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Please identify these consequences.

What are some of the therapeutic conditions you want to establish with a survivor of early sexual abuse? What are some of the goals of this type of counseling?

11. Identify the eight (8) developmental stages of Erikson's model of human growth and development. Provide a description of the specific developmental tasks of each stage. In addition, please discuss:
1. the role of early attachment as "the blueprint" for intimate relationships in early adulthood.

12. Two major types of assessment procedures based on interviews with consumers are the:

(1) Mental Status Examination, and
(2) Psychosocial (or Biosocial) History

When or under what circumstances are each of these assessment procedures useful? What are they designed to determine, and how do they potentially advance or help in treatment? Identify and describe the areas which are covered in each.


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

March 28, 2003

1. Social and Cultural

You are a counselor at a State Vocational Rehabilitation agency. A 24 year old African American male is referred to you. He is 6 months post injury from an automobile accident, resulting in paraplegia (unable to walk and has no feeling below the waist). He is married with two children, but reports that he is considering leaving his wife as he can not be a "real man". Furthermore, he appears very despondent and reports little desire to return to work. He has come to see you to "please" his wife. Given the above information, answer the following: A. What are the primary issues that should be addressed initially? B. What social, psychological and cultural concerns should be considered when addressing these issues? C. From a multicultural perspective, describe the theoretical approach(es) that might best be utilized when working with this individual and explain why this approach is optimal.

2. Individual Evaluation and Assessment

The interview is a major tool in assessment, and two types of assessment that are interview-based are the "mental status examination" and the "psychosocial (biosocial) history". Identify the different areas (subject matter) that a counselor assesses or reviews in both: (a) the mental status examination, and (b) the psychosocial history. In your answer, be sure to list out the areas for each and briefly describe them.

3. Psychopathology

Mood disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered by rehabilitation and mental health professionals. With regard to this classification, do the following: (a) list all disorders in the classification; (b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder; and (c) discuss comorbidity issues implicated in the more severe disorders.

4. Career and Lifestyle Assessment

You are a counselor specializing in career counseling and have been referred a white male and asked to determine his vocational potential in a workers compensation action. A white male, 37 years old, married with three children, was injured on the job. He experienced the amputation of both hands due to a severe electrical shock and trauma. He had been employed as a lineman for the City of Tampa since the age of 22 and is no longer able to work in his previous job. He spent 3 years in the military prior to employment as an electronics technician. A. Describe the manner and methods you would utilize to determine his employability? B. Explain how each of the following resources might be useful in determining employability: Dictionary of Occupational Titles Occupational Outlook Handbook Classification of Jobs

5. Counseling Skills

Explain the concept of Active Listening. What are some of the specific Active Listening skills? Give at least two case examples of how you have used Active Listening in a counseling situation.

6. Human Growth and Development

Describe the life span perspective of human growth and development. A. Specifically, what are the six psychosocial factors which influence mid life development? B. How can knowledge of the life span approach act as a framework for assessment and treatment in counseling?

7. Medical Aspects of Disability

For the body systems listed below, choose a specific disability representative of ONLY ONE of the systems and do the following: (a) outline the functional presentation (etiology, signs, symptoms) of the disorder; (b) describe treatment parameters and prognosis; (c) describe functional limitations imposed; and (d) discuss psychological and vocational implications: A. Cardiovascular or B. Musculoskeletal or C. Neurologic or D. Endocrine

8. Personality Theory

The counseling literature makes a distinction between approaches that are "counselor centered" and others that are more "client centered". Using Albert Ellis and Carl Rogers as representative examples of these two approaches, discuss: A. their respective theories; B. the counseling orientations that result from these theories; and C. a case example with an explanation of how each approach might handle this same case.

9. Human Sexuality

Define and describe the causes and treatment strategies for the following sexual dysfunctions: A. Rapid ejaculation B. Anorgasmia C. Low sexual desire for female or male What are the indicators that a referral to a certified sex therapist is needed?

10. Concepts and Applications

With regard to public and private sector vocational rehabilitation, please do the following: A. Discuss the emergence of public vocational rehabilitation B. Discuss the emergence of private sector rehabilitation. C. Thoroughly explain the way in which public and private sector rehabilitation practice differ in terms of philosophy, model(s) of practice/operation, clientele, credentials and training.

11. Counseling Theories and Practice

Assume that you are working as a counselor at a rehabilitation/mental health center, and the two following individual clients are referred to you. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have been seeing a marriage counselor, and their counselor has recommended that you work with them individually for the following reasons: John - has a job that occasionally is highly stressful. At home, with their three active children, life around the house at times is very stressful as well. When John experiences high stress, he uses alcohol to deal with it. Lately, however, he has been progressively drinking more and more, more than he wants to drink, and he is asking for some help with this difficulty. Mary, John's wife - is very kind and loving with John and their children. When John drinks, however, she says "He reminds me of my alcoholic father", and first she becomes withdrawn and then as time goes on she yells at John and becomes emotionally abusive to him. She does not like being this way and is asking for some help. Briefly answer the five following questions: 1. What theoretical approach would you suggest would be helpful in counseling John? 2. Why? 3. What theoretical approach would you suggest would be helpful in counseling Mary? 4. Why? 5. How could their individual issues constitute a "dance" in their relationship?

12. Legal, Ethical, Professional Standards and Issues in Counseling

Describe a real or fictitious community agency. Base your description on counseling theory, research, leadership style, governmental concerns, funding, and practice. Discuss how the community, professional organizations, state politics, and individual training effect the agency atmosphere. All of these factors will vary based on the agencies' goals, population, and type of funding. You can do this by making a drawing, diagram, or whatever seems well organized. Take into consideration: 1. Goal of agency 2. Target population 3. Funding (private/public/nonprofit) 4. Organizational structure 5. Theoretical model for therapy 6. Qualifications of staff 7. Location 8. Other


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

November 15, 2003

1.(a) Compare and contrast the 1973 Rehabilitation Act, the 1990 Americans With Disabilities Act, and the 1998 Workforce Investment Act. (b) Discuss the relationship of each of the above pieces of legislation to the concepts of: One-Stop Centers, empowerment, and informed choice.

2. As you consider and review your own counseling skills "toolbox", list at least five of what you consider to be the most important of those interpersonal counseling skills and give an example of each from your own counseling experience.

3.You have just accepted a position as a counselor in an urban inner city mental health center. A primary function is to facilitate a parenting group for young single parents. The demographic make up of the group is primarily African American and Hispanic women. Many of the group members have significant others who are affiliated with rival "gangs" in the community.

1. What expectations do you have for your own performance as a counselor in this setting? 2. Do you anticipate any issues in establishing a relationship with these individuals? 3. What issues concerning the formation of the group would you anticipate? Address issues related to group theory concerning the group's structure, purpose, counselor role and member's role and defend your choice of theory. 4. What specific issues concerning parenting and culture would you anticipate from the members of this group?

4. (a) Identify the disorders included in the Anxiety Disorders classification in the DSM IV. (b) Choose either social phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder and do the following: 1. Describe the essential features for the disorder. 2. Briefly describe comorbidity issues. 3. Briefly describe treatment (psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy) and rehabilitation considerations.

5. Regarding sexual dysfunctions, please identify and describe: 1. The different types of sexual dysfunctions. 2. The causes of each dysfunction. 3. The most effective modalities to treat each dysfunction. Define and describe the PLISSIT model for helping individuals and couples deal with sexual concerns. How does a mental health counselor determine when it is appropriate to refer a client or couple to a certified sex therapist?

6. Counselors dealing with clients who have a substance abuse issue find that many of these clients evade or deny outright any need for help whenever they are approached, and are generally resistant to entering any type of treatment program. One of the best tools to have the client accept the reality of the need for treatment is an intervention. In Vernon Johnson's text, I'll Quit Tomorrow, he addresses the dynamics of intervention. Please (1) discuss the planning for an effective intervention; (2) outline the several basic points that should be included; and (3) the reasons that each point is important.

7. It has been said, "All psychology is a footnote to Freud." This refers both to the fact that many of Freud's ideas have become a part of psychology and psychotherapy as well as the fact that so many other's ideas, also a part of psychology and psychotherapy, are a reaction to Freud. A. Describe the tripartite anatomy of the personality according to Freud? B. What are some of Freud's ideas that have become a part of psychology and psychotherapy? C. What are some of the criticisms of Freud? D. How did Dr. Berne modify and make more palatable some of Freud's ideas in his theory of Transactional Analysis?

8. Rheumatic diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Lyme's Disease, myofascial pain syndrome/fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome) are induced by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites), effect soft parts of the musculoskeletal system, and share many characteristic symptoms and signs, functional limitations, and psychosocial issues. Considering these diseases as a whole, not individually, do the following: (g) List 3 symptoms and signs, 2 functional limitations, and 1 psychosocial problem experienced by people who have rheumatic diseases. (h) Identify 2 medical treatment modalities (either traditional or alternative medicine) which are currently being used with these illnesses. (i) Address counseling considerations relevant to persons with these disorders.

9. Consider the two following counseling theorists: Carl Rogers and Eric Berne. In a short essay, answer the three following questions: 1. How and in what ways are Rogers' and Berne's theories similar? 2. How and in what ways are they different? 3. What strengths and limitations would these two theoretical approaches have in working with mentally ill clients in the managed care milieu of the new millennium?

10. When (under what circumstances) is a mental status examination (evaluation) needed and when is it not needed with a client? What areas are typically covered in a mental status examination? Identify and describe the different areas of functioning that are reviewed and what the counselor is looking for in each.

11. A research institute at USF is proposing to implement then evaluate EMDR therapy with persons who demonstrate pseudo/psychogenic seizures, a form of conversion disorder. Grant funding is being requested from the National Institute of Health/Institute of Medicine for this study. Identify four (4) ethical issues/rules that must be addressed in the proposal and describe why these issues would be important for both the participants and researchers involved.

12. A group passes through various stages of development as it progresses. Theorists use different terminology to identify these stages such as: a) formation/orientation, b) transition, c) working/advanced, d) termination (though these stages are not discrete and neatly separated in practice). Discuss: 1. the various characteristics of each stage; 2. the central task of group membership at each stage, and; 3. the leader function in each stage


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

March 22, 2002

--Discuss the current impact of the ADA as it relates to empowerment. Other than the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), list and discuss the intent of ten of the most influential pieces of legislation that have impacted the lives and benefits of persons with disabilities. Specifically address how this legislation is related to the philosophy of empowerment for persons with disabilities.

--You are a counselor at a counseling center on a predominately White college campus. You meet with an African American client (male) who walks in without an appointment. The student is angry over recent racial incidents targeted at African Americans that have occurred on campus, and is considering dropping out of school. You know that since this has occurred, many Black students have complained that White teachers have singled them out in their classes with questions about the incidents. They also have overheard racial jokes directed toward Blacks told by White students, and have noticed an increase in racial graffiti. Your client reports as having experienced each of these incidents and is asking your assistance in helping to stop such racial oppression. (A)How would you respond? (B)How would you help your client deal with his negative experiences? (C)How might your own values, beliefs, and experiences hinder or help you in this counseling situation?

--Consider the issues associated with the following two clients: Amy, a 31-year old single parent, junior high school math teacher, in recovery, is struggling a bit with her gambling addiction. And, Brett, a 43-year old plumber's helper, divorced, in recovery, and struggling a bit with his occasional/situational alcohol abuse. Briefly, yet cogently, answer the following three questions: (A)How and why could an Aaron Beck approach be helpful in counseling with Amy? (B)How and why could a Dollard and Miller approach be helpful in counseling with Brett? (C)How and why could a Rogerian approach be helpful in counseling with both of them?

--For the body systems listed below, choose a specific disability representative of three of the five listed below and do the following: (a) outline the functional presentation (etiology, signs, symptoms) of the disorder; (b) describe treatment parameters and prognosis; (c) describe functional limitations imposed; and (d) discuss psychological and vocational implications. -cardiovascular -musculoskeletal -neurological -endocrine -hemic-lymphatic

--The American Psychiatric Association has recognized that early childhood trauma produces a spectrum of mental health disorders (e.g., anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders and personality disorders) in adult life. The interview is an important tool in understanding the nature and development of presenting problems, and in diagnosing these disorders. With regard to these facts, do the following: (A)identify 3 specific disorders which can be considered traumatic syndromes, i.e. have an origin in trauma, and list the essential characteristics of each; (B)identify and describe the areas covered in both of the following interview procedures that might be used to assess these disorders: (1) Mental Status Evaluation. What areas are assessed and when is it necessary to have this type of assessment? (2) Psychosocial or Psychobiosocial History. What areas are covered and when is it important to have this type of information? (C)briefly describe recommended treatment approaches (including practice standards provided such standards have been developed)

--Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Give examples in this dialogue (and label them as such) of the counselor using the following: • a paraphrase • a feeling reflection • an open question • a closed question • an informal question • an encouraging response

--Sandra, 32, is seeking counseling due to a long history of difficulty with intimate relationships. At the initial session, you learn she has dated since 11th grade, has plenty of friends, and was engaged but broke it off about six months ago. Sandra is an attractive, college-educated woman who enjoys a successful professional life but believes something special is missing. She acknowledges a good deal of anxiety about sex. In fact, she has experienced an orgasm only a few times in her life. She notes embarrassment and guilt when it comes to sex. When asked about her expectations about counseling, Sandra replies in a vague manner (i.e., I want to learn about myself, or I'd like to more open sexually.) Please answer the following questions regarding the counseling process: (A)What approaches, assignments and/or strategies might be employed with this client? And, (B)since the family is the original blueprint for love and attachment, what do you want to learn about her early family experiences?

--Ostracism (i.e., deliberately ignoring, excluding, bullying, shunning, rejecting, giving the silent treatment to) is an interpersonal strategy with a punitive motive and is frequently used to retaliate on whistle blowers; angry partners; those who deviate from the rules or do not conform to group expectations; and/or those who are different by virtue of race, ethnicity, or disability. Research evidence suggest that either perpetrating ostracism (the source) or enduring it (the target) has both psychological and physiological costs and powerful consequences. Identify a current social issue in our society, and do the following: (a)identify 2 research designs/models (one quantitative and one qualitative) which could be used to empirically study this issue; (b)briefly describe your ethical responsibilities in carrying out research dealing with this issue; (c)speculate about how results of research on this topic could be of benefit to rehabilitation and mental health counseling.

--The history of psychology has sometimes been described as consisting of three waves - psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology. (a)Describe a personality theory from each wave (be sure to indicate why and how you think it belongs in that wave); (b)Compare and contrast the three in terms of what you would consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of each.

--Both Life Span and Vocational phenomena have strong developmental components. Choose and answer one of the following questions (you do not need to do both): (a)Identify and describe the eight stages of human development elaborated by Erik Erikson. What major challenges are faced in each stage of development? (b)Identify and describe three different theories of career development (vocational development of the individual).


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

November 16, 2001

--Persons with cogenital musculoskeletal/orthopedic impairments (such as osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan's Syndrome, osteochondrodysplasias (dwarfism), kyphosis, limb amputations or contractures, or absence of individual muscles or groups of muscles) have life long problems with bone or joint deformities and fractures, deficiencies in elements that produce bone, and soft tissue webbing. Most of these persons have normal intelligence. Suppose a person with one of these disabilities is coming to USF as an undergraduate student and will live in one of the dorms. Also suppose that you are in charge of meeting the student's disability needs on campus. Do the following: (A)Briefly.describe 3 functional limitations that you would expect to see; (B)Based on these functional limitations, what dorm room, classroom, and other environmental accommodations would you arrange for? (D)Describe the learning accommodations that USF faculty would be expected to make in this student's behalf.

--Mr. Silverman is a 40 year old white male, living with his girlfriend. Mr. Silverman had been employed as a masonry helper for 20 years when he injured his back in a slip and fall accident at the construction site. His job duties included doing finishing work after the mason had laid the block, mixing mortar, and doing some carpentry and painting. The injury to his back rsulted in a large herniated disc at the right L4 - 5 and bulging at L5 -S1. Restrictions reported by his physician include: lifting/carrying - 20 lbs. occasionally; bending- occasionally; squatting - occasionally; no overhead reaching on a regular basis; and position changes every hour. Mr. Silverman has a pre-existing condition that includes a head injury from an automobile accident approximately 20 years ago. He fractured his skull and was in a coma for a period of time. He remained in a rehabilitation hospital for approximately one year following the accident and reports short- term memory loss as a result of this accident. Mr. Silverman indicates that he has very little physical discomfort and takes aspirin as needed. He also reported that he mows lawns and does yard work to earn money. Mr. Silverman did not complete high school and does not possess a GED. His TABS scores indicate a reading level of 3.6, math level of 2.1, and a language level of 4.7 . Mr. Silverman does not have a history of alcohol or drug abuse and does not have any prior felony convictions. He has not identified a particular job or vocational interest; he simply states "I want a job, any job, as soon as possible." (a) Discuss Mr. Silverman's vocational strengths and weaknesses. (b) Develop an individual Plan for Employment for Mr. Silverman. (c) Based on the current labor market, what are your concerns regarding Mr. Silverman's vocational outlook?

--Persons with Cluster B personality disorders are especially difficult to counsel, have a personal relationship with, supervise, work for, or work with. Do the following with regard to these disorders: A) Identify the disorders included in Cluster B and list at least 2 essential features of each; B) How does a counselor identify if a personality disorder is present? What methods, procedures, and test might be helpful in the assessment and evaluation of personality disorders? C) Describe pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic approaches which should be considered in a treatment plan.

--Consider each of the following four: 1. Beck 2. Dollard & Miller 3. Meichenbaum 4. Rogers Consider conducting and in-depth, intake counseling session with each of the following two individuals: Walter, age 34, a lawyer by profession, got out of alcohol detox two days ago and comes to see you today because, as he tells you, "At discharge I told the social worker that I wanted to fix it this time." She said that I would need to see a counselor and that I was scheduled to see you today." Theresa, age 35, a high school math teacher by profession, has been abstinent for the past year, has been attending AA meetings regularly, and comes to see you today because, as she tells you, "I have a number of personal issues associated with my alcoholism that I want to address." In terms of your conducting an in-depth, intake counseling session with both Walter and Theresa, explain why each of the above four theorists (theoretical approaches) would probably be: (A) appropriate or inappropriate? (B) Why? (for each theorist)

--You are working at a "boot camp" type correctional facility with a large number of adolescent African American males inmates, most of whom are from large urban areas. (a) Do you believe these young men will avail themselves to counseling? Why or why not? (b) What psychosocial, developmental needs can you anticipate? How will you attempt to fulfill those needs? (c) To encourage change in African American male adolescents in such a setting, what should the role of the group facilitator be and why? What should the structure be and why? Give examples of specific interventions that should be considered.

--The Behavioral Technology Institute at the University of Washington is proposing to implement, then evaluate, Dialectic Behavioral Therapy with women who demonstrate life threatening, self injurious behaviors. BTI is requesting grant funding from NIMH for this research. Indentify four (4) ethical issues/rules that must be addressed in the proposal and describe why these issues would be important for both the women and researchers involved.

--Define the concept "Informed Choice" and explain its role in the vocational rehabilitation process. --Trace the history of Informed Choice via all associated federal legislation. --Discuss the current and future impact of privatization on the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services and rehabilitation counselors in the state of Florida.


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

March 23, 2001

--Compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative research. Include in your discussion (a) identifying characteristics of each (i.e., how, samples are obtained or formed, variables that are the focus of attention, intent or functional knowledge gained from each); (b) methods/designs used in each including validity issues and how data are analyzed; (c) outcomes and uses of same; and (d) the researcher's role or perspective in each type. Cite an example of each, which you discovered in the published literature in rehabilitation or mental health or addictions.

--Explain the concepts of validity and reliability as they relate to tests and measurement. Why are these concepts important? Identify and define the different types of validity and reliability.

--Persons with dual diagnosis (physical and psychiatric) present complex treatment, rehabilitation, and recovery (long term) challenges to the rehabilitation/mental health/ addictions professional. For two of the dual diagnosis combinations below, describe (a) essential characteristics of the disorders; (b) practice standards, if any; (c) psychosocial and vocational implications; (d) services and resources you would use or refer to which are currently available in the Greater Tampa Bay area; and (e) barriers or obstacles to services such as lack of program access. a. Traumatic brain injury with cognitive deficits, post traumatic epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric sequelae such as frontal lobe syndrome; b. Spinal cord injury and substance abuse; c. Low back injury with resultant chronic pain disorder; d. AIDS, major depression, and early dementia; e. Burn injuries with post operative/treatment PTSD

--Thoroughly discuss the three primary reasons multicultural counseling issues are included in the Rehabilitation and Mental Health counseling curricula.

--Explain the psychosocial process of adjusting to an adventitious, physical disability. How Does this process differ for persons from ethnic minority backgrounds?

--Define each of the following: Vocational Evaluation Transferable Skills Analysis Labor Market Survey a.Thoroughly explain how each of the above activities are conducted and describe the resources or tools necessary for their completion. b.Contrast the role and responsibilities of the counselor and client in each of the above activities.

--Robert is 21 years old and a high school graduate. He was born and raised in the midwest, the only child of a strict domineering father who worked as a police captain and a passive mother who worked as a secretary for the police department. Robert described his relationship with his father as "volatile - we always argued and nothing I did was good enough". During one such argument, Robert's father suffered a massive heart attack and subsequently died. A few months later, Robert's fiancee called off their engagement. Robert attempted suicide - using one of his father's guns, he pointed the gun to his right temple and pulled the trigger. he remained comatose for 4 to 5 months before regaining consciousness. His mother, "mortified by shame", refused to see or speak to Robert. Robert left the midwest and traveled south where he has maintained himself with odd jobs. Robert not sleeping well, behaviorally impulsive, and lonely. he has no support system in this area. He expresses a desire to build a new life, have a job and friends, and to settle some place where he will "fit". Now, do the following: a.Using the 5 axial model, complete a diagnosis for Robert. b.Briefly describe standard key elements of a treatment plan you would develop in his behalf. c.Estimate his long term prognosis, citing reasons/factors for the same.

--Consider the two following counseling theorist: Eric Berne and Aaron Beck. In a short essay, answer the three following questions: 1.How and in what ways are Berne's and Beck's theories similar? 2.How and in what ways are they different? 3.What strengths and limitations would these two theoretical approaches have in working with mentally ill clients in the managed care milieu of the new millennium?

--Describe the impact of social and political influences on the development of rehabilitation counseling prior to 1900? Identify and describe the significant legislative initiatives since 1900, that established Vocational Rehabilitation as a profession? How do you see the Americans with Disabilities Act impacting the profession of rehabilitation counseling in the next 10 years?


Previous Comprehensive Examination Questions

November 17, 2000

--Throughout the rehabilitation literature there exist numerous models which attempts to explain adjustment to disability. There are also a series of basic assumptions which the various "Stage Models" share. Below are three such assumptions. Thoroughly but cogently, explain the following assumptions: A. The impact of a sudden physical disability creates alterations in the individual's psychological equilibrium. A state of disequilibrium results with gradual attempts at achieving a renewed equivalent to the so-called final adjustment, adaptation, reorganization, or reintegration. B. The onset of a traumatic event has a sudden, unexpected, and massively extensive effect on the person's life. C. In order for the individual to adapt to an altered body, including imposed physical limitations, certain changes are expected in his/her body image, self-concept and personal identity.

-- In many ways, Abraham Maslow's personality theory is in direct contrast to Sigmund Freud's. Outline each theory and explain why this is so with specific reference to the following: l. a pathology model vs. a potential model 2. biological determinism vs. free will 3. optimism vs. pessimism

-- It has been suggested that it is important for professional counselors to be knowledgeable about research and research methodologies. 1. Give a good reason as to how and why knowledge in research will help a counselor be more professional; and 2. Give a specific example of how and why knowledge in research will help a counselor be a better counselor.

--Arthritis is a category which includes disease such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, and Fibromyalgia, all of which are increasing in incidence and prevalence and all of which are particularly disabling for young women. With regard to each of these diseases, do the following: 1. Describe characteristics of each disease as well as treatment and rehabilitation protocols. 2. Describe functional, psychosocial, and vocational challenges posed by each disease.

--Explain the role possible uses of the MMPI-2 in the assessment and diagnosis of pychopathology. When would a counselor want to have results from this test? What information does the test provide (i.e., scales), and what assurances or checks are there that the test results are valid? What other instruments might a counselor choose to assess psychopathology beyond the MMPI-2?

--Ricki Martin is a 50 year old disabled veteran in Spring Hill; he lives with his wife and 2 children. He has 18 years experience owning and managing a diving business. Due to a war related gunshot wound which pierced his lungs, he began experiencing difficulty breathing under water and could no longer continue in his diving business. In addition to the lung condition, he has arthritis in the left shoulder and was diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 1987. He currently takes Prozac (40mg. per day) and sporadically attends an anger anagement/PTSD support group. Mr. Martin stopped working eight months ago and his savings account is almost depleted. His functional limitations are described as follows: Difficulty being around people, irritability, increased anxiety, and anger due to his financial situation. Other imitations include an inability to lift more than 401bs. and an inability to use his left arm for pushing, pulling, carrying, or reaching. Mr. Martin is seeking your assistance in job placement and has expressed a desire to work as a Bridge Inspector or a Park Ranger. Assume that you are a vocational rehabilitation counselor and that Mr. Martin has met all eligibility criteria. a. Outline the steps in the job placement process. b. Based on the identified functional limitations, which work environment(s) would be least successful and why? What accommodations might be made to mitigate the effects of such limitations? c. What steps would you take in assessing the feasibility of his desire employment options? d. Assuming the client's employment preferences are not feasible, how would you process to conduct a transferable skills analysis? How would the Classification of Jobs (COJ) be useful in this process?

--A client, talking to his counselor about a serious problem he has, says, "I had been going with Lisa for about three years and we were planning to get engaged this fall. About two weeks ago, however, she had too much to drink when we were at a party, which was very unusual for her. And when we got into an argument on the way home from the party, she said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal - she had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told her I wanted to 'call it all off and never see her again'. She really hurt my feelings by what she said, yet I just can't believe I did what I did. Briefly answer each of the four following questions: 1. Theoretically, how would a Rogerian therapist explain his/her strategy for working with this client -- basically, what would be his/her theoretical approach? 2. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Rogerian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping him. 3. Theoretically, how would an Albert Ellis oriented therapist explain his/her strategy for working with this client -- basically what would be his or her theoretical approach? 4. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate an Ellisonian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping him.

--Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered by professional counselors. With regard to this classification, do the following: (a) list all disorders in the classification, (b) describe standards pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder, and (c) discuss comorbidity issues implicated in the more severe disorders.

--Identify and discuss the differences and similarities of rehabilitation counseling as provided in the private versus public sector. Address issues related to the following; a) The philosophical orientation of each b) The development of each as a profession, include relevant legislation c) Primary funding sources d) Role and function of counselors in each setting e) Priority of outcomes expected in both sectors


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

March 24, 2000

1. Discuss the impact of legislation on the development of rehabilitation counseling. Identify and describe the central elements of six important amendments. Also, discuss the impact of the ADA on the future of rehabilitation counseling.

2. It has been said, "All psychology is a footnote to Freud." This refers both to the fact that many of Freud's ideas have become a part of psychology and psychotherapy as well as the fact that so many other's ideas, also a part of psychology and psychotherapy, are a reaction to Freud.

· Describe the tripartite anatomy of the personality according to Freud.

· What are some of Freud's ideas that have become a part of psychology and psychotherapy?

· What are some of the criticisms of Freud?

· How did Dr. Berne modify and make more palatable some of Freud's ideas in his theory of Transactional Analysis?

3. Explain why the concepts of validity and reliability are so important in testing and measurement. Define both terms and then identify and fully describe the different types of validity and reliability.

4. Alicia, age 5, contracted polio (a neuromuscular disease) 18 months ago secondary to administration of a live polio vaccine. The disease impaired sensory and motor function in her legs. She now wears leg braces, ambulates with difficulty, tires easily, complains of paresthesias from time to time, and sometimes uses a manual wheelchair to traverse longer distances such as a shopping mall. Answer the following questions concerning the long term medical consequences of Alicia's disability and the rehabilitation planning issues one must consider over her life course:

· Describe essential characteristics of long term polio.

· Describe residual functional capacities problems that will arise as Alicia ages.

· Describe psychosocial and vocational implications of this disability.

· Describe services and resources you would plan for, use, and/or refer to when she is a child, an adult, an elder.

· Estimate the level of case management (i.e., low, medium, high) that will be needed when Alicia is a child, an adult, an elder.

5. You have just accepted a counseling position in a correctional facility where a large number of African American and Hispanic inmates, most of whom come from nearby urban centers, are incarcerated.

· Do you anticipate that these inmates will avail themselves of your services as a counselor? Why?

· What psychosocial needs can you anticipate Hispanic inmates may have that you as a counselor might attempt to fulfill?

· How will you attempt to fulfill them?

· What ethical issues should you be sensitive to in the provision of services to these inmates?

6. As you look over your own counseling skills "toolbox", list at least five of what you consider to be the most important of those interpersonal counseling skills and give an example of each.

7. Cindy Wilson, a 29 year old woman with paraplegia, is seeking your assistance in job placement. Cindy has never worked competitively, but has volunteered for the past three years as a library assistant at the community library. Although she has enjoyed this experience, she is not interested in a career in this field.

· How should you assist Cindy in clarifying her interests and establishing a vocational goal?

· Identify workplace accommodations which might be appropriate for Cindy.

· How might current labor market trends impact Cindy's career options?

8. In recent years, ethical issues in research with human subjects have become of increasing concern to scientists, practitioners, and funding entities. As evidence to this fact, just two weeks ago the National Institute of Mental Health suspended or ordered changes in nearly three-fourths of its 108 sponsored research studies because of ethical concerns about human participants. List then describe 4 of these ethical issues (not principles); include in your answer one or more of the historical incidents that have been responsible for bringing such issues to public attention.

9. A client, talking to her counselor about a serious problem she has, says, "I had been going with Jim for about three years and we were planning to get engaged this Spring. About two weeks ago, however, he had too much to drink when we were at a party, which was very unusual for him. And when we got into an argument on the way home from the party, he said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal --- he had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told him I wanted to 'call it all off and never see him again'. He really hurt my feelings by what he said, yet I just can't believe I did what I did."

Briefly answer each of the four following questions:

· Theoretically, how would a Rogerian therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client ---- basically, what would be his or her theoretical approach?

· Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Rogerian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.

· Theoretically, how would an Aaron Beck oriented therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client ----basically what would be his or her theoretical approach?

· Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Beck therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.

10. Robert is 21 years old and a high school graduate. He was born and raised in the midwest, the only child of a strict domineering father who worked as a police captain and a passive mother who worked as a secretary for the police department. Robert describes his relationship with his father as "volatile ---- we always argued and nothing I did was good enough". During one such argument, Robert's father suffered a massive heart attack and subsequently died. A few months later, Robert's fiancee called off their engagement. Robert attempted suicide ---- using one of his father's guns, he pointed the gun to his right temple and pulled the trigger. He remained comatose for 4 to 5 months before regaining consciousness. His mother, "mortified by shame", refused to see or speak to Robert. Robert left the midwest and travelled south where he has maintained himself with odd jobs. Robert states that he is depressed, irritable, confused, forgetful, not sleeping well, behaviorally impulsive, and lonely. He has no support system in this area. He expresses a desire to build a new life, have a job and friends, and to settle some place where he will "fit".

Now, do the following:

· Using the 5 axial model, complete a diagnosis for Robert.

· Briefly describe standard key elements of a treatment plan you would develop in his behalf.

· Estimate his long term prognosis, citing reasons/factors for same.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

November 19, 1999

1. Consider the following counseling theorists: Dollard & Miller and Aaron Beck.
In a short essay, answer the three following questions.

1. How and in what ways are Dollard & Miller and Beck's theories similar?
2. How and in what ways are they different?
3. What strengths and limitations would these two theoretical approaches have in
working with mentally ill clients in the managed care milieu of the new millennium?

2. Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Give examples in this dialogue, and label them as such, of the counselor using the following:
a. a paraphrase
b. a feeling reflection
c. an open question
d. a closed question
e. an informational question
f. an encouraging response
g. a confrontation

3. Compare and contrast two Career Counseling theories of your choice. How does each account for career development? Which is least appropriate for use with people with physical and psychiatric disabilities? Explain.

4. Our society is witnessing increasing violent behaviors by children, adolescents, and adults in the home, schools, workplace, and community. Develop a design to evaluate a model violence prevention program for delinquent emotionally handicapped teenage boys. Do the following:
a. Describe a research design that will serve this purpose.
b. Identify variables which can be used to measure effectiveness, efficiency, and an individual's progress through the service process.
c. Identify and describe at least two ways in which the results may be used.
d. Identify at least two reasons why results of such evaluations are not used in the real world.

5. Identify and describe five tests of your choice. They may be from the intelligence, aptitude, achievement, vocational interest, or personality assessment areas. What specifically does each test measure (i.e. scales), and which/when results from it might be useful to a counselor? Be as specific as possible in describing each test and its uses.

6. The counseling literature makes a distinction between approaches that are "counselor centered" and others that are more "client centered". Using Albert Ellis and Carl Rogers as representative examples of these two approaches, discuss the following:
a. their respective personality theories
b. the counseling orientations that result from these theories, and
c. present a case example with an explanation of how each approach might handle this same case.

7. A. There are several stage models that explain the process of adjusting to a disability. Discuss the common elements or basic assumptions underlying most state models.
B. Contemporary theories of counseling and therapeutic practices are grounded in Western assumptions which may be inconsistent with the world-view of many ethnic minority clients. Discuss these assumptions and the way(s) in which adhering to them may negatively impact ethnic clients. Identify ways in which counselors can make the therapeutic process more cultural specific.

8&9. Persons with dual diagnosis (physical and psychiatric) present complex treatment, rehabilitation, and recovery (long term) challenges to the rehabilitation/mental health/ addictions professional. For four of the dual diagnosis combinations below, describe (a) essential characteristics of the dual (comorbid) disorders; (b) practice standards, if any; (c) psychosocial and vocational implications; (d) services and resources you would use or refer to which are currently available in the Greater Tampa Bay area; and (e) barriers or obstacles to services such as lack of a program of access:
a. alcohol dependence and an anxiety disorder such as social phobia or panic disorder.
b. mild mental retardation and a long term mental illness such as major depression.
c. traumatic brain injury with cognitive deficits, post traumatic epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric sequelae such as frontal lobe syndrome.
d. substance abuse and bipolar disorder.
e. spinal cord injury and substance abuse.
f. low back injury with resultant chronic pain disorder.
g. rheumatoid arthritis and major depression.
h. AIDS, major depression, and early dementia.

10. Over the past 7 decades major social, political, and technological changes have occurred which have had a significant impact on the field of Rehabilitation and the way in which rehabilitation services have been delivered. From 1940 to the present,
a. Discuss at least one major social, political, or technological change per decade, clearly articulating its impact on the field of Rehabilitation, and
b. Identify and outline an associated legislative act which mandated changes in service delivery, and
c. Identify and briefly discuss the most recent piece of legislation impacting future trends in rehabilitation service delivery


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

March 19, 1999

1. A client, talking to her counselor about a serious problem says she has been going with Jim for about three years and were planning to get engaged this Spring. About two weeks ago, however, he had too much to drink when we were at a party, which was very unusual for him. And when we got into an argument on the way home from the party, he said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal -- he had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told him I wanted to 'call it all off and never see him again'. He really hurt my feelings by what he said, yet I just can't believe I did what I did".

Briefly answer each of the four following questions:
a. Theoretically, how would a Rogerian therapist explain his/her strategy for working with this client -- basically, what would be his or her theoretical approach?
b. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Rogerian therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.
c. Theoretically, how would a Gestalt oriented therapist explain his/her strategy for working with this client -basically, what would be his/her theoretical approach?
d. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a Perl's theoretical strategy for helping her.

2. Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered by rehabilitation professionals. With regard to this classification, do the following: (a) list all disorders in the classification, (b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder, and (c) discuss comorbidity issues implicated in the more severe disorders.

3 . Identify and define the different types of validity and reliability. Why are these concepts so important in testing and measurement?

4. (a) Trace the history of rehabilitation from its inception to present.
(b) Past social, political, economic, and technological trends have influenced current disability legislation, service delivery, and client populations. Discuss current trends which are likely to impact future disability policy, service delivery, and populations served and speculate on the nature of the impact.

5. Create a client/counselor dialogue starting with the client presenting a problem. Give examples in this dialogue (and label them as such) of the counselor using the following:
(a) a paraphrase
(b) a feeling reflection
(c) an open question
(d) a closed question
(e) an informational question
(f) an encouraging response
(g) a confrontation

6. Analog and ex post facto studies have played important roles in the evolution of rehabilitation/mental health/addictions research. Do the following:
(a) Describe each type.
(b) Identify variables of interest in each.
(c) Discuss strengths and limitations of each.

7. Low incidence but high impact disabilities are few in number but complex to ti7eat and challenging to rehabilitate. For the disabilities below, identify and describe (a) treatment complexities, and (b) functional, psychosocial, and vocational rehabilitation challenges:
(a) traumatic brain injury
(b) AIDS
(c) multiple sclerosis
(d) work-related injuries such as low back or repetitive motion syndrome
(e) chronic pain syndrome

8. What is subsumed under the concept of "transferable skills" (i.e., what different areas does this concept cover or include)?

9. Larry, a 89 year old African American male was recently injured while helping a friend install a second floor window. The rope holding the scaffolding in place broke and Larry fell to the ground. He landed on his face, breaking his nose and jaw, and knocking out several teeth. He also cracked a vertebrae (T-12) in his back which will require surgery and implantation of metal rods. Larry was between jobs at the time of the accident (seasonal truck driver) and was one month late in paying the premium on his COBRA insurance policy. Consequently, he is having difficulty getting the insurance company to cover his medical expenses. Larry is single but lives with his girlfriend, Doris, who is six months pregnant and unemployed. He has no other family in the area. Larry is a recovering alcoholic with six months sobriety.
(a) Explain the process of adjustment which Larry will likely experience.
(b) What stages might Larry go through as he adjusts?
(c) How might the adjustment process differ for persons from an ethnic minority background?
(d) How would you assist this client?

10. The history of psychology has sometimes been described as consisting of three 'waves' -- psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology.
(a) Describe a personality theory from each wave. (Be sure to indicate why and how you think it belongs in that "wave".)
(b) Compare and contrast the three in terms of what you would consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of each.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

November 13, 1998

1. Why is career counseling important for individuals with disabilities? What different items (areas) should career counseling address?

2. List at least five of what you consider to be the most important interpersonal counseling and communication skills. Explain and give an example of each in terms of a counseling interaction.

3. A client, talking to his counselor about a serious problem he has, says, "I had been going with Alice for about three years and we were planning to get engaged around Thanksgiving. About two weeks ago she had too much to drink when we were at a party, which was very unusual for her. And when we go into an argument on the way home from the party, she said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal--she had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told her I wanted to call it all off and never see her again. She really hurt my feelings by what she said. I just can't believe I did what I did,

4. For the body systems listed below, choose a specific disability representative of each and do the following:
(a) outline the functional presentation (etiology, signs, symptoms) of the disorder;
(b) describe treatment parameters and prognosis;
(c) describe functional limitations imposed; and
(d) discuss psychological and vocational implications.

(a) cardiovascular, (b) musculoskeletal, (c) neurological, (d) endocrine, (e) hemic-lymphatic

5. Compare and contrast the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In your answer, identify and briefly explain the major components of each act. What are the fundamental differences between the two, and which has had the greater impact on persons with disabilities and why?

6. Gloria Little-foot, 37, was injured in an automobile accident after newly arriving in San Diego, California, from her ancestral Lakota home in South Dakota. A T-4 injury resulted in paraplegia. She had lived on the reservation all of her life, but was educated off the reservation. As a patient in a rehabilitation center, Gloria was provided with the services of a rehabilitation counselor.
(a) What are some initial considerations and concerns that the counselor might have beginning the rehabilitation process with Gloria?
(b) What are issues Gloria will most likely encounter in her adjustment and how can the counselor assist Gloria's family in the adjustment process?
(c) What ethical concerns does this situation present for the counselor?

7. Identify and describe the different types of validity and reliability in the area of testing and measurement. Give an example of each.

8. It has been said, "all psychology is a footnote to Freud." This refers both to the fact that many of Freud's ideas have become a part of psychology and psychotherapy as well as they fact that so many others ideas, also part of psychology and psychotherapy, are a reaction to Freud.
A. Describe Freud's personality theory.
B. What are some of Freud's ideas that have become a past of psychology and
psychotherapy? C. What are some of the criticisms of Freud?
D. Maslow's personality theory could be seen as diametrically opposed to Freud's and in fact a reaction to it. Explain how this is so.

9. It has been suggested that it is important for professional counselors to be knowledgeable about research, research ethics, and research methodologies.
a. Give a good reason as to how and why knowledge in research will help a counselor be more professional;
b. Give a specific example of how and why knowledge in research will help a counselor be a better counselor.
c. How and in what ways are items 1 and 2 above a part of a rehabilitation counselor's ethical responsibilities?

10. Mood disorders are among the most prevalent disorders encountered by rehabilitation professionals. With regard to this classification, do the following:
(a) list all disorders in this classification,
(b) describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches for each disorder and
(c) discuss comorbidity issues and gender differences that could impact.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

March 27, 1998

1. The process of psychosocial adjustment to a disability encompasses psychological, sociologica, and disability related factors. Explain this process of adjustment. Discuss the factors which rehabilitation counselors must be cognizant of when assisting an ethnic minority with a disability through this adjustment process.

2. Explain why it is said that, "a valid test will also be a reliable test, but a reliable test is not necessarilly valid." Are there any circumstances where a valid test might NOT be reliable, and if so, explain this and give an example.

Then, in addition to the above, identify and define the different types of validity and reliability in a separate section of your answer to this Comprehensive Examination question.

3. Choose five of the disabilities listed below and do the following: (a) Identify the body system affected and the etiology of the disorder; (b) describe signs and symptoms associated with each; (c) describe physical functional and psychosocial limitations imposed by each; and (d) discuss specific vocational implications that must be given to attain (re)employment.
AIDS
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Chronic Pain
Epilepsy
Cardiomyopathy
Interstitial lung disease
Multiple Sclerosis
Brain Injury
Obesity

4. Discuss issues relevant for the appraisal, treatment, and psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Which strategies/techniques and resources would you use in improving their functional outcomes.

5. In many ways, Abraham Malow's personality theory is in direct contrast to Sigmund Freud's. Outline each theory and explain why this is so with specific reference to the following:
1. a pathology model vs. a potential model
2. biological determinism vs. free will
3. optimism vs. pessimism

6. Explain the concept of Active Listening. What are some of the speicific Active Listening skills? Give at least two case examples of how you have used Active Listening in a counseling situation.

7. In the field of rehabilitation research, a major concern is the "Search for Truth." Briefly yet thoroughly answer each of the three parts of the following question.
a. Write out a reasonable research question pertinent to the practice of rehabilitation counseling.
b. Describe a research design for a study that would reasonably address the research question; and
c. Briefly explain why your research design would aid in the process of "Searching for Truth."

8. Consider the two following counseling theorists: Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck. In a short essay, answer the three following questions:
a. How and in what ways are Ellis' and Beck's theories similar?
b. How and in what ways are they different?
c. What strengths and limitations would these two theoretical approaches have in working with clients with mood disorders in a managed care milieu.

9. Draw out and label John Holland's hexagonal (6 sided) model of work environments. Position them properly around the hexagon to show which environments are opposites. Then describe beneath the model each of the work environments. Which vocational interest inventories use this theoretical model?

10. Discuss the major mandates of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. Delineate the primary differences between the two. Discuss the impact of both Acts on the field of rehabilitation in general and on the lives of people with disabilities in particular over the past three decades.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

November 14, 1997

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Identify the legal issue(s) and/or the ethical dilemma(s) in the scenario below. Using an ethical decision making model (of your choice) resolve the dilemma(s). Be sure to identify each step of your decision making model.

You are employed as a rehabilitation counselor at a residential facility for adolescent males. Ninety percent of the residents are African American males diagnosed with behavioral or emotional disorders. You have been employed for 6 months and during that time you've witnessed or have been informed of at least four (4) incidents of verbal or physical abuse of the residents by agency staff (which is predominately African American). You have voiced your concerns to your supervisor who happens to be the Executive Director of the agency. The Director, who is also African American tells you that "African American males need to be beaten down every now and then in order to maintain control over them" and not to concern yourself with this practice. You have become very unhappy with your employment situation but can not afford to leave until you secure another position. You have submitted resumes all over town but no one has called yet.

2. In relation to psychosocial aspects:

(a) What psychosocial problems do persons frequently face in their adjustment to severe illness or disability?

(b) What specific interventions can a professional counselor use to help with each problem identified in (a)?

3. Please list and describe which type of psychological instruments (intelligence test, aptitude and achievement tests, neuropsychological tests or personality tests) one might want administered to a person who has experienced a traumatic head injury.

(a). What are some of the factors that will influence the diagnostic interpretation of test performance in persons with brain injury?

(b). In addition to gathering data from these tests, what role will your clinical judgment and experience play in rehabilitation planning and prediction of outcomes of rehabilitation?

4. What, in your opinion, are the communication skills most necessary for an effective counseling interaction? Be specific and give examples.

5. Explain the process of career counseling with an adolescent who has a disability. What special issues, if any, should a counselor be sensitive to? What tests, if any, might be helpful in gathering information?

6. Explain Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. How do these stages account for maladaptive behavior in adults and what would be the means of resolving adult difficulties? How is it that this "epigenetic" approach incorporates both determinism and free will?

7. Choose five of the disabilities listed below and do the following: (a) Identify the etiology of the disorder and the body system affected; (b) describe signs and symptoms associated with each; © describe physical functional and psychosocial limitations imposed by each; and (d) discuss specific vocational implications that must be given to attain (re)employment.

1. Systemic lupus (SLE)
2. Traumatic or Acquired brain injury
3. Low back injury
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
5. Spinal cord injury
6. Blindness/low vision
7. Deafness/hearing impairment
8. Epilepsy
9. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
10. Diseases that result in end stage renal failure

8. Anxiety, mood, and personality disorders are the most prevalent disorders encountered by rehabilitation professionals. Choose one of these groups/classifications and do the following:

(a) List all disorders in the group.
(b) Describe standard pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic treatment approaches for each disorder.
(c) Discuss ways in which symptoms of these disorders would interfere with occupational functioning (be specific).

9. Explain the differences between experimental and descriptive research. Give an example of a problem that should be addressed through an experimental design (quantitative) and one that should be addressed by descriptive (qualitative) research. Explain your design for both problems.

10. A client, talking to her counselor about a serious problem she has, says, "I had been going with Bob for about three years and we were planning to get engaged at Christmas time. About two weeks ago he had too much to drink when we were at a party, w hich was very unusual for him. And when we got into an ar gument on the way home from the party, he said some things to me that really hurt my feelings. It seemed so unreal -- he had always been nothing but kind and gentle to me. When we got to my apartment, I told him I wanted to call it all off and never see him again. He really hurt my feelings by what he said. I just can't believe I did what I did."

Briefly answer each of the four following questions:

1. Theoretically, how would a client centered therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client -- basically, what would be his or her theoretical approach?

2. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a client centered therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.

3. Theoretically, how would a cognitive behavior therapist explain his or her strategy for working with this client -- basically, what would be his or her theoretical approach?

4. Provide a counselor's response to this client that would demonstrate a cognitive behavior therapist's theoretical strategy for helping her.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

July 11, 1997

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Trace the legislative history of the American state-federal rehabilitation program identifying the most important aspects of each act. Also, what are the major provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act?

2. Explain the process of job placement and how it fits into the total rehabilitation process. What methods and procedures might a counselor employ to help a consumer obtain a suitable placement?

3. Define and explain the concepts of validity and reliability. Why are they so important in testing and measurement? Identify and describe the different types of validity and reliability.

4. Compare and contrast descriptive and experimental and descriptive research. Give an example of a problem that should be addressed through an experimental design and one that should be addressed by descriptive research. Explain your design for both problems.

5. What multicultural issues should counselors be sensitive to in working with individuals having disabilities? In your answer identify different issues as they might impact working with consumers who are members of specific ethnic or minority groups.

6. Identify and describe the different anxiety disorders in DSM-IV. How does anxiety affect people's lives and what are possible etiologies for anxiety? What medications are often prescribed to help manage anxiety?

7. Identify and describe each of the different personality disorders in DSM-IV. How may the presence of a personality disorder impact the treatment of a concurrent Axis I condition? Give an example.

8. Compare and contrast the Person-Centered Therapy developed by Carl Rogers with the Rational-Emotive Therapy of Albert Ellis. How are the two approaches alike and different, and what are the strengths and limitations of each?

9. Identify and describe the developmental stages postulated by two of the following three writers: (a) Sigmund Freud, (b) Erik Erikson, and/or (c) Jean Piaget. Include in your answer the approximate age ranges for the different stages they describe.

10. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define or describe each of them. Describe the essential nature of each of the following conditions and what problems or limitations are frequently associated with them: (a) diabetes mellitus, (b) multiple sclerosis, (c) paraplegia, (d) traumatic brain injury, (e) myocardial infarction, (f) cerebral palsy, (g) osteoporosis, (h) Alzheimer's disease, (i) hemophilia, (j) Parkinson's disease, (k) AIDS, and (l) learning disability.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

March 21, 1997

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page. Read the questions carefully, and answer each one fully and completely in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. How does a counselor proceed in attempting to resolve an ethical question or dilemma? What sequential steps should he or she take? What behaviors are generally considered to be unethical?

2. Explain the psychosocial process of adjusting to an adventitious disability. What stages might an individual pass through, and how can a counselor assist them in each stage?

3. In rehabilitation, mental health and addictions research a major concern is utility of the results or study findings. With this in mind, respond to the following:

(a) Write a research question pertinent to the practice of rehabilitation or mental health counseling.

(b) Describe a research design that could be used to address your question in (a).

(c) Explain the validity considerations relevant to your design in (b).

(d) Briefly explain in what way(s) this study would contribute to the profession's body of knowledge.

4. Compare and contrast "Rogerian Counseling" and "Ellisonian Counseling" in terms of:

(a) How they conceptualize a client's basic problems.

(b) What techniques are utilized to help a client.

5. Choose four of the following disorders and do the following: (a) describe the essential features and etiology of the disorder, (b) describe standard treatment (medication and/or therapy) protocols recommended for the disorder, and (c) identify two psychosocial rehabilitation considerations relevant for persons who have the disorder.

Disorders:
(1) Bipolar II
(2) Cognitive Disorder NOS
(3) Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type
(4) Major Depression
(5) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
(6) Generalized Anxiety Disorder

6. In outline form:

(a) Identify and describe major aspects of the legislative acts that shaped the development of the state-federal vocational rehabilitation program.

(b) Identify and describe the present eligibility criteria for vocational rehabilitation services.

7. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define and describe each. What problems and limitations are characteristically associated with the each: (a) Huntington's disease, (b) diabetes mellitus, (c) decubitus ulcer, (d) rheumatoid arthritis, (e) blindness and low vision, (f) hemophilia, (g) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (h) sickle cell disease, (i) deafness, (j) AIDS, (k) cerebral palsy, (l) mental retardation.

8. What is meant by the term "transferable skills?" When (under what conditions and/or circumstances) are they important in vocational rehabilitation plan development and how does the counselor assess them?

9. Explain John Holland's model of career choice and job satisfaction. Identify and describe his work/personality environments.

10. Identify by name and describe each of the following tests. What does each test measure and when would a counselor want such information?

(a) WAIS-R
(b) WRAT-R
(c) MMPI-2
(d) GATB
(e) SCII


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

November 15, 1996

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Fully explain the axis system used in DSM-IV. What is measured on each axis?

2. Identify and describe the major theories of vocational development that a rehabilitation counselor should be familiar with. How may these be relevant in counseling and in rehabilitation planning?

3. Define validity and reliability, and explain why these concepts so important in testing? Identify and describe the different types of validity and reliability.

4. Explain the tripartite "anatomy" of the personality according to Freud. How does this division contribute to the experience of anxiety and how would it be addressed in treatment? How does the more contemporary school of Transactional Analysis "reinterpret" this model?

5. Explain the importance of ethics to the practice of rehabilitation counseling. Address each of the following: (a) What sequential steps should a counselor take in trying to resolve an ethical dilemma? (b) Beyond these steps, what principles apply in resolving ethical dilemmas? (c) List behaviors that are generally considered unethical.

6. Identify and describe the following: (a) The separate anxiety disorders in DSM-IV. (b) The separate mood disorders in DSM-IV.

7. Explain the concept of transferable skills. How are these relevant in placing someone with past work experience? List the transferable skills a counselor typically assesses and explain (define and describe) what these areas are.

8. Analogue methodology has been, and continues to be, a controversial issue in counseling research. Answer the following questions concerning its utility to our profession: (a) What is analogue research? (b) What are the advantages and strengths of analogue research? (c) What are the disadvantages weaknesses? (d) What are three categories of variables that should be considered in evaluating the relevance of analogue research to real life?

9. Consider the following data regarding a rehabilitation client:

Jose is a 36 year old male who has been married to Maria for 13 years. They have twin 11 year old sons, Jose is the coach of his sons' little league team, and he and Maria are co-chairpersons of the Social Committee of the "Latin-American Dance Club." Jose has been an over-the-road truck driver for the past 12 years, and was recently in a serious road accident resulting in him being a "double above knee amputee." He has just completed a physical restoration outpatient program.

Assume you are Jose's rehabilitation counselor. Briefly, yet thoroughly, answer the following questions: (1) What critical issues would you address with Jose in terms of his "vocational rehabilitation?" (2) What critical issues would you address with Jose in terms of his "total rehabilitation?"

10. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define, describe, and answer what is asked for in relation to each. Explain the essential nature of each of the following conditions and what problems or limitations are frequently associated with them: (a) multiple sclerosis, (b) Parkinson's disease, (c) Gullian-Baree' syndrome, (d) rheumatoid arthritis, (e) blindness and the legal definition of it, (f) glaucoma, (g) hiatus hernia, (h) meningitis, (i) amputations explaining any differences with upper and lower extremity amputations, (j) HIV and its difference from AIDS, (k) cerebral palsy, (l) aphasia.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

July 12, 1996

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Outline the legislative history of the state-federal rehabilitation program indicating the important aspects of each act. What are the major requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act?

2. Explain the process of career counseling and why it is important for both handicapped and nonhandicapped individuals. What methods and procedures might the counselor employ to help a client explore possible career directions?

3. Explain the concepts of validity and reliability and what is meant by each term ? Why are they so important in testing and measurement? Identify and describe the different types of validity and reliability.

4. Compare and contrast two counseling theories of your choice. In your answer identify and briefly explain the major constructs of each theory. What are the strengths and limitations of each approach, and what client populations might each be best suited for?

5. What psychosocial problems do individuals frequently face in attempting to adjust to a severe disability? How can the counselor help them with each problem you identify?

6. Describe the different conditions in DSM-IV where depression is a major symptom. How does depression affect people's lives and what are possible etiologies for depression? What medications are often prescribed to help manage depression?

7. Compare and contrast two personality theories (not counseling theories) of your choice. How does each account for the development of a healthy adult personality? How does each theory explain maladjustment?

8. Explain the differences between experimental and descriptive research. Give an example of a problem that should be addressed through an experimental design and one that should be addressed by descriptive research. Explain your design for both problems.

9. A common problem in working with individuals having chronic psychiatric disabilities is that they do not stay on their medications. What are some of the conditions where this is a major problem and why do people have trouble complying? How should a counselor approach this issue with a client?

10. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define or describe each of them. Describe the essential nature of each of the following conditions and what problems or limitations are frequently associated with them: (a) multiple sclerosis, (b) diabetes mellitus, (c) quadriplegia, (d) traumatic brain injury, (e) cerebrovascular accident, (f) epilepsy, (g) rheumatoid arthritis, (h) ankylosing spondylitis, (i) hemophilia, (j) Parkinson's disease, (k) AIDS, (l) mental retardation.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
April 12, 1996

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Trace the legislative history of the state-federal rehabilitation program indicating the important aspects of each act. What are the eligibility criteria of the state-federal rehabilitation program? What other legislation is of major importance to Americans with disabilities and why?

2. Explain the process of vocational evaluation in the delivery of rehabilitation services. In your answer identify when such evaluations are necessary in the rehabilitation process, what areas are assessed, procedures typically utilized, and the desired outcome or product for the vocational rehabilitation counselor and client. What ethical issues should the counselor be sensitive to in the evaluation process?

3. Identify and describe one or more standardized psychometric instruments in each of the following areas. Under what circumstances would a vocational rehabilitation counselor want to have one or more measures in each of the below areas, and under what circumstances would assessment of an area be unnecessary. Give clinical examples for each of the above.

(a) Personality Tests (b) Intelligence Tests (c) Vocational Interest Inventories (d) Aptitude Tests (e) Achievement Tests

4. Compare and contrast three counseling theories of your choice. In your answer identify and explain the major constructs of each theory. What are the strengths and limitations of each approach, and what client populations might each be best suited for?

5. Explain the psychosocial process of adjusting to a disability. What stages might a newly disabled individual pass through? How can the counselor assist the client and family in the adjustment process? Are there multicultural issues counselors should be sensitive to, and if so explain them?

6. Describe the condition of schizophrenia and each of the different diagnostic subtypes recognized in DSM IV. What are possible etiologies for this condition? What medications are often prescribed to help manage symptoms? What are the major psychosocial and employment problems these individuals face and how can rehabilitation counselors help them?

7. There are three major theories of how learning occurs. Identify and explain each of the three theories. In the course of your answer give an example of each using human beings rather than animals.

8. What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods in research in: (a) Approach (b) Purpose (c) Analysis (d) Outcomes (e) Contributions to mental health, substance abuse, and/or rehabilitation counseling.

9. Explain the concept of a personality disorder and how this is different from Axis I psychopathology. Then identify and describe each of the Axis II Personality Disorders in DSM IV.


10. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define or describe each of them. Describe the essential nature of each of the following conditions and what problems or limitations are frequently associated with them: (a) end stage renal disease, (b) peripheral neuropathy, (c) myocardial infarction, (d) traumatic brain injury, (e) cerebrovascular accident, (f) epilepsy, (g) osteoarthritis, (h) cystic fibrosis, (i) hemophilia, (j) Alzheimer's disease, (k) AIDS, (l) mental retardation.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
November 17, 1995

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Describe the placement process for a job ready client. How does the counselor work with the client in the job placement process? What different strategies or approaches may be employed, and what are the different strengths and weakness' of these approaches?

2. Explain how a vocational rehabilitation counselor goes about doing a job analysis to determine if an injured client can return to his or her former job? What specific information does the counselor need to collect, why is this information necessary, and how is it best obtained? After the job analysis is finished, what does the counselor do with it (how does the counselor proceed)?

3. Validity and reliability are critical concepts in testing and measurement. Define both concepts and also define and describe the different types of validity and reliability. When are these different types each important? Explain why it is said, "A valid test will also be a reliable test, but a reliable test is not necessarily valid." Under what condition(s) would a valid test not be reliable?

4. Identify ten (10) counseling leads or verbal techniques (specific ways to respond to clients) that could be used by a professional rehabilitation counselor. For each lead, briefly comment on: (a) the purpose(-es) of the lead; and, (b) any cautions or special issues associated with that particular lead. Are there cultural implications to any of the leads you identified?

5. Outline the legislative history of the state-federal rehabilitation program identifying the most important elements and/or impact of each act. Also describe the provisions and impact of the: (a) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and (b) Americans with Disabilities Act.

6. Explain the five axis classification system used in DSM-IV. What is the rationale behind this system? Identify and define (be specific) what is recorded on each axis.

7. Compare and contrast Rogers' and Ellis' basic conceptualization of: (1) neurosis (i.e. how and why people psychologically get into trouble); and, (2) how a counselor or therapist assists a person in being less neurotic (e.g., what are the special counseling strategies and techniques in both approaches).

8. Briefly yet thoroughly, answer each of three parts to the following question:

In the field of rehabilitation:

a. how and why is ex post facto research important? b. give an example of how and why ex post facto research may be an understandable and appropriate strategy in rehabilitation research? and, c. how and why is research (all kinds) critical to the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling?

9. Individuals with paranoid personality disorder invariably experience a profound disturbance in interpersonal relationships. They characteristically feel superior and special, see others as deficient and hostile, are themselves hostile toward others, and have a sense of persecution or victimization. How do these elements interact in the interpersonal context (i.e. in relationships with other people) to support and maintain the personality disturbance? What Axis I disorders have paranoia (in one form or another) as a major symptom, and how are they different from the Axis II personality disorder?

10. List the following disorders or conditions by name (not by letter) down the left side of this page, and in one or two sentences define or describe each of them. Describe the essential nature or aspects of each of the following: (a) multiple sclerosis, (b) muscular dystrophy, (c) Guillain-Barre syndrome, (d) cerebral palsy, (e) decubitus ulcer, (f) Huntington's disease, (g) rheumatoid arthritis, (h) sickle cell disease, (i) Parkinson's disease (j) diabetes mellitus, (k) Friedreich's ataxia, and (l) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
April 7, 1995

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Compare and contrast Rogers' and Perls' basic conceptualizations of: (1) maladjustment (i.e., how and why people psychologically get into trouble?); and (2) how a counselor or therapist assists a person toward better adjustment/coping. What are some of the specific counseling strategies and techniques in both approaches?

2. Explain how a vocational rehabilitation counselor determines what types of work a person with a disability might be able to do. What specifically must the counselor evaluate in order to know: (1) what types of jobs a client can perform, and (2) whether such employment would be available for a client?

3. Identify legislation of historic and current importance in shaping rehabilitation services in America. What are/were the most important aspects of each Act? Include in your answer the importance and provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (formerly known as the Education for all Handicapped Children's Act) and Americans with Disabilities Act.

4. Explain the uses and limitations of intelligence testing in rehabilitation counseling. In your answer address: (1) what is the construct we call intelligence, (2) how is it typically measured, (3) in what situations would a rehabilitation counselor likely need or want to obtain this type of testing, and (4) what implications might results have for rehabilitation planning?

5. Choose a physical condition (not a psychiatric, mental or substance use disorder) and describe the condition including in your answer: (1) etiology, (2) functional limitations, (3) psychosocial aspects, and (4) vocational implications.

6. Choose two separate personality theories and describe how each views normal development. How does a healthy adult personality emerge according to each theory? How does each theory explain the development of a maladjusted or poorly adjusted adult?

7. A counselor employed at an agency observes a professional colleague (i.e., coworker in the same program or on the same unit) behave toward a client in a way that is clearly unethical, but not illegal. You are not certain if your colleague is even aware of what he or she has done. How would you proceed in such a situation? If the problem continued, what would you do? Give an example of such a situation and how you would deal with it.

8. Briefly yet thoroughly, answer each of three parts to the following question:

In the field of rehabilitation:

1. how and why is survey research important? 2. how and why is experimental research important? and, 3. how and why is research (all kinds) critical to the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling?

9. Sylvia Echohaw, 25, was injured in an automobile accident after newly arriving in San Diego, California from her ancestral Lakota home in South Dakota. A T-4 spinal injury resulted in paraplegia. She had lived on the reservation all of her life, but was educated off the reservation. As a patient in a rehabilitation center, Sylvia was provided with the services of a rehabilitation counselor. What are some initial considerations and concerns that the counselor might have in beginning the rehabilitation process with Sylvia. What might the counselor need to do after meeting with Sylvia? What are issues Sylvia will most likely encounter in her adjustment process?

10. Identify and describe the different Personality Disorders listed in either DSMIII-R or DSM IV. Indicate which version of the DSM you are using. What possible significance may Personality Disorders have in the treatment of Axis I conditions? Give an example of such a situation.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
November 18, 1994

Directions: Answer each of the following questions on this examination booklet using the front and back of the page (as necessary) for each question. Try to answer each question as fully and completely as possible in the available space. Remember that strong answers on some questions may help to offset weaker answers on others. Use black ink and please pay attention to your remaining time and the legibility of your writing. Be sure your Social Security number is on each page of the examination.

1. Compare and contrast Survey Research and Experimental Research? How are they similar and different from one another, and how are they relevant to the practice of rehabilitation counseling?

2. Explain what is meant by "job seeking skills training." What areas does this include and what specifically does a client need to learn how to do? How and in what ways is this type of training relevant to the job placement process?

3. Trace the legislative history of the state-federal rehabilitation program indicating the most important elements of each act. Also explain the importance of the Education for all Handicapped Children's Act (renamed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

4. Fully explain the basic concepts of validity and reliability. Why are these so critically important in psychometric assessment. Identify and describe the different types of validity and reliability.

5. Explain the difference between the terms "disability" and "handicap." Identify five different physical (not psychiatric conditions), explain what the condition is, and what limitations are often associated with it.

6. Based on Freud's theory of human development, what predictions can you make about an individual's development during his or her lifespan? What predictions can you make using Erickson's theory. Treat each theory separately in your answer.

7. Explain why ethics are important in the practice of counseling. How should counselors attempt to resolve difficult ethical questions or dilemmas? Identify several behaviors or practices that are unethical for a professional counselor, but not illegal.

8. Compare and contrast Rogers' and Ellis's basic conceptualizations of maladjustment. Using each approach, how does a counselor or therapist assist a person to become better adjusted?

9. Statistics on demography and disability indicate a strong relationship between being a person of ethnic minority descent and having a severe disability. Discuss the issues that contribute to the existence of this relationship. How might a rehabilitation counselor effectively serve a person of ethnic minority descent who has a severe disability? In a cross-cultural counseling relationship, what resources are available to a counselor to effectively help a person of ethnic minority descent who has a severe disability?

10. Identify and describe the different Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders listed in either DSMIII-R or DSM IV. Indicate which version of the DSM you are using. What major medications are use to treat these disorders and indicate whether the medication is used to treat anxiety, mood, or both disorders.